Widdling Empress Tsyshi
After the death of Sianfan (Izhzhu) in the mountain refuge in Chende, the Supreme Power in China almost on the attachment focused in the hands of the Cxycy, the former concubine, and then the second wife of the emperor. Tunzhzhi, ninth zinsky emperor, rules from 1861 to 1874 nominally. Really, China was managed by a widowing empress. Guansen, grandson Izhzhu and the next ruler of the Middle Kingdom, tried to conduct an independent policy and even prepared a package of reforms. Back in 1868, Tsyshi retired to the summer palace, officially stating that her regency ended. However, the Empress continued to control all the actions of the young monarch and not a single legislative act took effect without its signature. Guan’s attempts to finally reform the country, known as the "One hundred days of reforms" of 1898, ended with the state coup with support to the general, and all the fullness of power re-focused on the widowing empress. Guangsen managed to establish the University of Beijing and was planted under arrest to the Forbidden City, where he died in 1908 the day to death of Cyshi.
From opium wars to collapse
Since the defeat of the Penetrian in the first opium war, China’s history was predetermined for decades ahead. Subsequent wars, uprisings, cataclysms and a hinge struggle for power only strengthened the result and led to the final defeat of the Qing Monarchy. Confrontation with the combined West, as the attempts to "hide in the shell of insulanceism" were originally doomed to failure. European powers and America are not accustomed to give reverse when it came to profits, and the monarchical state apparatus was not able to get out of the crisis. In 1898, Guanseni tried to reform society, focusing on the reform of Maidzi in neighboring Japan, but was "shot down at the Empress of Tsyshi. Even if there was no state coup, it is unlikely that reforms could delay the approaching end.
In 1870, an event occurred, finally raurated Beijing with Western countries. In history, it entered the title Tianjin massacre. The attitude of local residents to Christian missionaries and European merchants was not, and could not be good. Rather, the situation resembled a purulent injection, which would be revealed elsewhere, even if the Tianjin massacre did not happen. It all started with the decision of the French priest to build a Catholic Cathedral without the permission of the Chinese authorities, and also on the site of the Buddhist temple. Dissatisfaction of the inhabitants intensified by having rumors around the city, that the sisters of the Mission Mission’s Mission to steal and crippled local children. Rumors appeared due to the growth of seasonal diseases in a Catholic shelter and real kidnapping by gangsters. Criminals, of course, tried to shift the blame on missionaries. Crowd with pleasure. On June 21, the furious crowd gathered from the Temple under construction, where the French consul shot in the crowd and shot a servant of the head of the city.
As a result of the starting massacre, dozens of people were confused. Sisters of Mercy raped, killed and threw their corpses into the river. Four churches were burned, children’s shelter and French consulate. Moreover, the furious crowd killed about four dozen Chinese Christian and three our merchants who were accepted for the French. Throughout the country, from the Great Wall of China to Fuzhou and Kunmina, rolled anti-Christian performances.
Thirteen non-equivance contracts with European powers and the United States continued to drive into a stand of the Chinese economy. Part of strategically and economically attractive ports turned out to be in the hands of colonizers. Portugal finally declared his colony Macau in the Tianjin Treaty, Hong Kong was in power of the British since 1842, Germany in 1898 heeded Qingdao, Shanghai was behind the French, Europeans were commissioned in Qianjin, Guangzhou and Formos. Popularization of cigarettes in China Mercla before the spread of opium, an irreparable damage. Against this background, at the junction of the 19th and 20th centuries, and the famous boxing uprising occurred, it is also aeteuan. Tsyi, the lover of the Beijing Opera and smoking tobacco, originally even supported the rebels who opposed Europeans. However, subsequently transferred to the side of the colonializers and took part in suppressing the rebellion.
The excitements began in 1897, intensified in 1898, in the year of the coup and the complete seizure of the power of the entertaining empress, and already in the 1900th, many current attractions of China in Beijing were under the sight of our, American and Japanese cannons. Resters opposed foreign interference in the Chinese economy, religion and domestic politics and against Chinese Christian. One of the reasons for the speeches was the reluctance of the Chizy to go to the urgent reforms.
When the number of rebel armies exceeded a hundred thousand people, and the imperial troops suffered a number of defeats, official Beijing went on a truce. Myatoani abandoned anti-government rhetoric and agreed to restrict only the struggle with foreigners. After burning the temple and schools of the our Orthodox mission, the murder of many Europeans and Chinese Christians in Mukden and the siege of the Embassy Quarter in Beijing, the Qing Monarchy declared war to allied states and a full-scale intervention in China began to China: Austria-Hungary and Russia, Japan and the United Kingdom, Italy and France, USA and Germany.
After the rebels, in particular, the whole of China as a whole, the position of the consecutive thing many times worsened. Days of the Manchurian monarchy were considered, China was finally divided into the spheres of influence, the country was laid out with huge contributions, and the local authorities were even forbidden to collect taxes. Final (Boxing) Protocol has become one of the last nails in the coff cover of the Qing Dynasty.