Why the kings gave nicknames?
Nicknames had the kings of almost all European dynasties: England, Scotland, France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, the Czech Republic and Russia, of course … they were born in palace corridors and rural taverns. Nickname is a kind of creature people.
But in one name it would be difficult to put all the qualities of the ruler, so one it most often did not do. Of all the nicknames of the king, it was usually chosen one, which became the main.
In the era of the medieval nicknames often became the second name, reflecting the most noticeable person for the. With rarely use or lack of surnames, they became an element of identification. They were given contemporaries, were obtained after life or were created by themselves.
They reflected both external signs (for example, Khakon II broadcase) and the achievements and features of the Board (for example, Edgar Peacemaker, English King, striving to avoid armed conflicts) or human nature (Philip bold). They could reflect the place of origin (for example, the Polish king of Johann Luxembourg), a certain event in life (Eric Plouge, who imposed a tax on a plow), the emotional attitude of other people (Karl Great).
Nicknames were used by kings and for political purposes, to strengthen their prestige, so if they were offended, to say difficult. For example, Louis XV supported the cult of the "Sun King", personally participating in ballet productions and playing, in particular, the role of God Apollo and the Rising Sun. It was relevant during the strengthening of the royal power within the country and the positions of France in the international arena.
Nicknames were often used as elements of political representation and earlier, raising the rating and ruler itself, and its countries. Philipper Brave, Louis Pious, Karl Wise and Other His nicknames created a fairly positive image, which was important for both the state’s foreign policy, and for the authority of the dynasty, support for the descendants in the event of a possible power struggle.
Often mocking nicknames were given by political opponents – in order to insult the ruler himself and make him a mixture for his people.
Over time changed and connotation. For example, Harold Hare Lap – the name that sounds now rather ironically, – appeared, presumably, the result of the speed on the hunt. And vice versa, originally had a negative characteristic nickname gained positive connotation. The lion’s heart, as, according to one of the versions, was called the English king Richard Arabs for his warlikeness, became a symbol of courage and nobility.
Some nicknames were rushed into the fly, other things were accustomed and became an integral part of the memory of the kings.
As noted by a prominent modern specialist in the field of name of the our princes.B. Assumption, the history of the name of the name is concentrated, compressed to the limit of the history of the dynasty.
Sometimes the reason for the appearance of the nicknames lie on the surface, without requiring special evidence. So, Alexander Yaroslavich was named the Nevsky for the victory over the Swedes on the Neva, and Dmitry Ivanovich – Donskoy for the victory over the Horde Mamay on Don. And another thing is to answer questions about the nicknames as a system, to make sure generalizations, based on private cases: how and who was given nicknames, there were sustainable traditions here, which was necessary in order for the nickname to become commonly consistent with respect to a certain person, and T. D.
You can recall the interpretation of the nickname of the Grand Duke Moscow Vasily Vasilyevich Dark. Starting from the oldest times of the first historians of the our past, the following understanding was firmly included in everyday life: Dark Vasily Vasilyevich became the political opponent of Prince Dmitry Yuryevich Shemyak in 1446. However, such an interpretation is so unequivocal? Historian N.WITH. Borisov rightly noticed: "The authentic meaning of the unique nickname of Vasily II is a kind of historical mystery. In the language of that time words "dark" and "blind" were not absolutely identical. They differed their content. In the XV century, a few princes and boyars who were nicknamed blind. But there is not one other than Vasily II, who would be called dark. This name sounds like a curse. But in it – szvuk pity and forgiveness.