Why parrots are talking?
The first "speaking" parrot was recorded in the 70s of the XIX century in the German city of Stuttgart. He could pronounce ten words. Although there are evidence that the amazing abilities of these birds were celebrated before our era. So, in the ancient Rome "talking" parrots were more expensive than good slave.
Birds – the only class that can imitate human speech. First of all, this is due to their complex communication system. Yes, birds sing not for our pleasure with you, but for the exchange of information. (Previously, "my planet" told why the roosters are quacked in the morning and the animals of one species from different countries understand each other.)
However, not all of them can reproduce and modify. To do this, you need to have a good resonator. A person has major resonators are the larynx, mouth and nasal cavity, trachea. Previously, scientists assumed that the voice devices of birds and a person are arranged equally, but studies have shown that in birds, unlike people, two larynges: top, like mammals, and lower. And the main role in the formation of sounds is the bottom, which is much more difficult and found only in birds. The peculiarity of its structure is that it has not one, but two or more vibrator working independently of each other. Thus, the voice apparatus of birds is a small orchestra. That’s just the structure of the lower, "singer" larynx is so difficult and so much varies with different types of birds that the researchers still have no consensus on the mechanisms of its work.
However, the complex structure of the larynx by itself still does not explain the ability of the parrots to imitate human speech. Therefore, Erobiologists Erich Jarvis and Dr. Mukta Chakraborti conducted experiments on the brainstant of three groups of birds: singers, hummingbirds and parrots. Everyone has found "Song" Center – a special group of neurons responsible for training and vocationalization. By continuing the study, Jarvis compared the brain of eight species of parrots and revealed that the "song" center consists of two parts, where the more simple is built into a more complex. It distinguished them from the rest of the birds.
Despite the fact that the parrots have the most advanced ability to vocal learning, for the non-infrared repetition of sounds for a long time considered to be stupid birds. But at the end of the XX century, psychologist and doctor of science Irene Pepperberg and her gray African parrot Alex, bought in the usual pet shop, struck all by their experiment. Alex proved that he knows about 150 English words and can recognize objects. Moreover, Dr. Pepperberg was able to teach him to read several letters! And one of the strongest achievements of the bird was the understanding of zero, which no one was taped at all.
Parrot Alex © alexFoundation.Org
Alex is no longer alive, but he has a lot of followers who continue to change the ideas of people about animals and their capabilities. So, in 2017, in London, five-year-old Jaco Buddy activated voice assistant – Alex, which helps buyers to make purchases in the online store Amazon.com, and ordered a set for packing gifts. Corinne Pretorius, Mistress Buddy, was outstanding a pet only when it turned out that none of her family members did an order. In the future, the "conversation" parrot with the speaker showed that after the bird repeated the word "alex" several times, the device turned on and asked: "What do you want to buy?"The parrot made an order, and was able to confirm him, saying at the right moment:" Yes "(that is, yes). A year later, the same voice assistant helped to other Pernavuanu – the African gray parrot Rocco – to order on Amazon.COM Favorite treats: watermelon, raisins, broccoli and ice cream, and light bulb and paper snake. Mistress Marion Vishnevski was shocked by what happened: "I checked the list of purchases and canceled all orders Rocco". And the parrot Ara named Jessie somehow sent to the line of rescuers who came to withdraw him from the roof.
Talking parrots have in the Kaliningrad Zoo. For example, young blue-yellow Ara Archi is constantly interested in everyone: "What is?"And" And this is where?". Thus, although there are no evidence of logical thinking from parrots, it can be said for sure that they are perfectly studying and their ability to end has not yet been studied.