Why dried the Aral Sea?
The process of crosses and drying the Aral Sea, once – The fourth in the area of the lake in the world, was noticed in the 80s of the last century. The reason for degradation was the reduction of freshwater revenues from the main water arteries that feed the Aral Sea – Syrdarya and Amudarya.
In the 60s in the Central Asian republics of the USSR – Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and in the south of Kazakhstan began to actively develop cottonation and in general agriculture, for which water from Syrdarya and Amu Darya began to actively rely on the channels for land reclamation and other needs. The largest such channel, Karakum, a length of 1445 km, laid from Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea, takes the river about 45% of its water.
In some years, the water level in the Aral Sea decreased by 0.7 m, the huge territory of the former day turned into a lifeless desert. Aral Sea is actual – Salted lake, due to a decrease in the influx of fresh water in it, the fish almost disappeared, although before her annual catch was tens of thousands of tons. Numerous ports and fish farmers on the coast. The winds are spread with a dried bottom of a huge amount, about 150 tons, sand mixed with pesticides and other chemicals used in the production of cotton, in the extensive territory of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Currently, the area of the Aral Sea water area is not more than a quarter from the initial, during the crosses, according to the calculations of scientists, the lake lost about one hundred cubic kilometers of water. The Aral Sea actually broke up into two separate reservoirs – Big and Small Aral. Solve the problem of the Aral Sea could reduce the area under cotton in the countries of Central Asia, however, the economic and demographic situation in these countries does not even allow to consider such a perspective.