Why cook did not open Antarctica?
Let us ask yourself: what is dry? In the geographical encyclopedic dictionary, 1988, the publication, it is said that drying is part of the earth’s surface, not covered with seas and oceans, that is, continents and islands. There is also added: "The concept of sushi usually does not include lakes and reservoirs". And glaciers? Something on the maps they are signed in blue, in some places black. Will there are no numbers of the total area of sushi? In some sources – 29.2 percent of the surface of the Earth, in others – 25. The question is, of course, to some extent, theoretical: Well, what’s the difference is to count the glaciers with land or water object? But because of this uncertainty, there were funny incidents in the history of geography.
Closest in the XVIII century, the participants of the second round-the-world expedition of James Cook were met with ice mountains and hills, among which were two naturalists – Johann and Georg Forsters. The famous English navigator and German scientists did not count the ice – guttlers (ice glaciers) and firnovone (ice snowfield) – Mountain breed and for the land did not take them. Such a point of view that ice is water in solid state and no more, – cost a cook. Unopened Ice Continent.
January 30, 1774 Slut "Resolve" reached a record for that time of south latitude – 71 ° 10 ‘, and in the captain’s diary appeared unusual for the southern – water – hemispheres of the land of the string:
"At 4 o’clock in the morning, in the south, a dazzling white strip was noticed – the harbinger of close ice fields. Soon the grotty mast saw a solid ice barrier (allocated by me – in. NS.). Starting from the east to west on the unbarrous space. All southern half of the horizon shine and sparkled with cold lights. I counted 96 vertices and peaks along the edge of the ice field. Some of them were very high. " (J. Cook. Journey to the southern pole and around the world. M., 1948.)
What saw cooks and wools in that clear day on the horizon, perceived by geographers ambiguous. Some believe that travelers of the progress of the barrier of the shelf glacier adjacent to the modern coast of Walgrina. Other geographers, for example, Konstantin Markov (k. Markov. Travel to Antarctica. M. 1957.) were confident that "see the continent at a distance of 150 km he, of course, could not".
And call Cook with a solid ice barrier by the shore, to be him the discoverer of the most southern mainland of the earth. The first geographical name on the future Ice continent – the land of Trinity (Trinity) appeared only in the XIX century, when the British William Smith and E. Brincefield January 18, 1820 (old style) We saw the yield rocks in the area of the modern Antarctic Peninsula. Two days earlier I discovered the Sushi of the White Neck of Faddia Bellinshausen and Mikhail Lazarev, but they "Ice field, destroyed victims" and "Mother Ice Extraordinary Height", Like Cook, the name was not given, although they became the Openmen of Antarctica.
Subsequently, the navigaters in the Antarctic did not give out geographical names of high natural objects folded by guttlers and franchise ice. So in the XIX and XX centuries on the maps were mad "O. Emerald", "O. Daherta", "O. Nimrod", "O. Victory", Outdoor Soviet polar researchers in the 60s. These islands were signed by black, although they turned out to be giant icebergs, pretty quickly after their discovery by the destroyed by the sea and warm air.
The navigaters of the past centuries for the land took only those areas of the earth’s surface that were folded with rock or loose rocks, and they considered white and blue ice mountains "petrified water". Although G. Forster and J. Cook in January 1775 on the island of South George "Seen how small blocks of ice took place in the sea, and heard a strong crackling of larger masses, which, visible, split down in the depths of the bay" (G. Forster. Traveling across the world. M., 1986.). So and the Cook and Forster could well tie into a single whole numerous icy islands near the southern polar circle with the mainland or huge sizes of the island, from which they were filled in a warm period of the year.
Ironically, the seventeen-year-old young man Vedididi (O’Heddi y g. Forster), born on the Tropical Island of Bolabo La (Borbor) Society Archipelago. The guy before the meeting with Forsters and Cup has never seen either snow, no ice, so well familiar to Europeans. But it did not prevent Bolboltz in December 1773 to call seen huge ice barrier "Voyau Tita", that is "White land".
Georg Forster, having heard about "White land", I tried to prove the uneducated young man, far from the physical geography of high latitudes, which is high ice mountains, like low packed ice fields – only water in solid state. Naturalist even led the inquisitive young man to a barrel with fresh water, where ice was formed after frosts. It is a pity that in the second round-the-world expedition, Cook was not a hydrogeologist, which would tell Vedida, and at the same time both the Forser with a cook, that the high ice islands are formed not from water in the liquid phase, but from solid atmospheric precipitation – snow, snowy cereals, hail – which Supervisory Vedidida called "White pebbles".
If for dormant Bolaball High Ice Islands, shining mountains and hills in the south of the planet were "White Earth", then a scientist G. Forstor "It seemed that in front of them the wreckage of some destroyed world or, maybe the corner of hell, which poets describe it".
If Vedidida opened for Aboriginal Society Archipelago "White land", about which he was colorfully told on Tahiti’s island, then Cook for Europeans discovered "Earth Sandwich", adopted by him for the northern protrusion of the southernmost continent of the earth. Alas, "Land Sandwich", Thanks to the efforts of F. Bellinshausen and M. Lazareva in 1820, turned into the islands of the Southern Sandvichev, and "White land" Vedida already in the XIX century became a white continent called "Antarctica". Even in the archipelago, the Vedidic name appeared in the archipelago – "White land". No wonder all the same in the Bible says: "Wasted from wise and openly babies".
About the uncomfortable Cook, wise foredes and young workers, I involuntarily remembered on September 14, 1997 on the South Island in the Barents Sea, where the lake was found in the mountains of Lazarev, not shown in any of the topographic maps. The Square of the Ice Lake at the time was about 350 square meters, and the depth of more than 30 meters.
It was formed on the site of an almost 700 meters of the Vasnetsov glacier near the last 45 years, more precisely, his southwestern language, descending in the early 50s to a mark of 300 meters above the Barents Sea level. Lake had an unusual – dark green – color. But in the mountains of Lazarev I was interested in not so much a new Ice Lake, as degrading because of the warming of the climate Glacier Vasnetsova. Some of the firns were exposed to light blue geletheric ice, crumpled in bizarre folds.
It is a pity that such folds have not seen a cook, father and son Forsters. At the beginning of the 20th century, folding in one of the shelf glaciers in the region of Adeli, Australian geologist Douglas Muson noted. The folds of the most diverse shape are also found in guttletric ice, languished sometimes fragments of rock, semi-flux and loose rocks, as well as air bubbles of past epochs. But no naturalist, geogrammer or geologist recorded the folds in the ice of marine, lake or river origin.
Looking at folded "White land" Glacier Vasnetsova and his brainchild – a new emerald lake, I was already easy to put a transpression of the term "land". For me, as for the young Vedida, sushi is a section of the earth’s surface, not flooded with waters of the seas, oceans, lakes, rivers and swamps, as well as their ice in the cold period of the year. And I quite share the point of view of the young Polynesian, that the glaciers have a white land, folded by ice inflats, snowfields and glaciers.
For the our hydrogeogeologist Nestor Tolstikhin, all these ice are not only "solid water phase", but also "Ice rocky rocks". So Vedidi and N. Tolstihin perceived gutter ice as a rock formation, a slanting land, although Bolaball has never walked to school, and Nestor Ivanovich was a doctor of geological and mineralogic sciences and knew a lot in rocks.