Why are some mountains high, and other low?
Domestic, or endogenous, the forces of the Earth are responsible for the appearance of the mountains. They are different. So, Kilimanjaro (5895 m), Klyuchevskaya Sopka (4750 m), Vesuvius (1281 m) appeared as a result of volcanic processes. Mount-Lacolite Mashuk (993 m) and Beshtau (1400 m) in Pyatigorsk – due to raising magma to the surface. And on the formation of the mountains of a mural type, such as the dragons of the mountains in South Africa (the height of the highest vertex – 3482 m), influenced vertical tectonic movements, raised the whole block of the earth’s crust.
What kind of tectonic process led to the formation of the mountains and how intense it was intensive, the external appearance of the array will largely depend on: there will be a symmetrical cone of the volcano, rounded, a relatively low dome of a laccolite or a mountain with steep slopes and a mosper.
In the history of the Earth there were whole "epochs of the formation", when internal tectonic processes were particularly intense. The earth’s crust at the boundaries of lithospheric plates in such periods was actively moving, frozen in the folds, and extended mountain belts and arrays appeared on the surface.
Kilimanjaro (5895 m)
The main epochs of the formation of four, of which the youngest is the era of alpine folds, when the highest and well-known mountain arrays were formed, such as Alps, Himalayas, Caucasian Range. This era covers the last 50 million years, that is, most of the Cenozoic era. Mountains of this type have very characteristic sharp peaks, steep slopes, narrow gorges and a large height difference. In addition, active tectonic processes in the Alpine era of folding led to the appearance of "revived" mountains on the site of ancient, aligned folded belts (for example, Ural Mountains, Sayans, Altai).
Once under the influence of endogenous processes, a separate mountain or a whole array appears, external forces begin to influence it – Exogenous. As a result of the temperature difference, rock rocks crack, screaming and the collars shift them below the slope, streams and rivers blur the surface and carry particles by flow and t. D. A person notes not always, but for millions of years of temperatures, water, wind and gravity strength can completely change the face of relief. For example, Cappadocia its structure is obliged to the action of opposing natural forces – volcanism and erosion.
Over time, the mountains are destroyed and becomes lower, sharp peaks and deep gorges disappear, surfaces become more gentle. At the rate of destruction affect the rocks that these mountains are found, and the climate, but the tendency to decrease the height remains.
It happens inverse. So, as a result of the Nepalese earthquake in 2015, Annapurna, one of the ten highest mountains in the world, increased by 20 cm. I wonder what grows and Everest. Moreover, he also moves. As scientists found out, from 2005 to 2015 Everest moved to the northeast at a speed of 4 cm per year and each year "smarded" by 0.3 cm. For ten years, the mountain moved to 40 cm and became 3 cm above. But. After the Nepalese earthquake decreased by 2.54 cm.
In other words, after millions of years, nothing will remain from the usual view of the Alpine Mountains.