What you need to see in Florence and why
In 1425, the master Masolino’s master received from the rich Florentine Brankachchi to the painting of the Family Capella Brankachchi in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine (Santa Maria Del Carmine). A little later, another artist joined the mature Mazolino, a boy completely, with a long name, which was known to anyone, because even the closest friends called him simply – mazacho, which means translated "Mazila".
Two artists divided various episodes among themselves from the life of St. Peter, namely, he should have been devoted to the fresco cycle, and began to work. It has already been clear enough, it became clear that the creations of the Mazis are nothing in common with the traditional style of Mazolino do not have.
Mazacho became essentially the first to which the means of linear and air perspective managed to build a surprisingly real space, place in it powerful figures of characters, truthfully portray their movements, poses, gestures, and then scales and color figures to tie with a natural or architectural background.
When I first saw the fresco "Exile of Adam and Eve from Paradise", It seemed to me that in front of me the creation did not start quatropento, but the 19th century, – so in the expression of the strength and sharpness of the feelings of the mazacho. If Mazolino on the other side of the chapels, Adam and Eve are written softly and sweet, Mazacho, they are immersed in infinite despair: Adam, who closed her face with his hands, and sobbing Eve, with a distressed eye and dark failure of a distorted cry of mouth.
Mazaccho, working on frescoes, sometimes simply hooliganil: for example, placed in the New Testament stories of modern Florentine, dressed in the last 15th century fashion.
In 1428, Mazachcho called to Rome, and the cycle remained unfinished, he added it half a century later my favorite Philippino Lippi. The frescoes were immediately recognized as masterpieces, and all the painters walked them to copy them. Among them, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Pietro Perugino, Michelangelo and Raphael, as well as many others. According to the legend, young Michelangelo once stated his friend that he could never. Friend faced and broke Michelangelo nose.
If Jotto served as a precursor Renaissance, then Mazacho, one might say, opened a Renaissance in painting.
. One autumn Roman day of 1428, Mazaccho came out of the house and went to the workshop. He was 27 years old. No one ever seen him anymore.
- Capella Brankachchi in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmina
- &# 39; Exile from Paradise&# 39; – Fresco Mazacho
1099. First crusade. The knight, originally from Florence, first climbs through the Jerusalem Wall, for which he gets from the grateful Gottfried of Boulevard Two pieces of silica from the temple of the Holy Sepulcher. The knight brings a relic home, to the joy and pride of the Florentineians who will keep stones to the present day. Knight is called Pazzino Pazzi ("Pazzi" means "crazy").
1478 year. Renaissance flourishing. Almost all of his greatest masters have already been born: on the approach of Rafael, Michelangelo and Georgeon are still children, but Botticelli, Leonardo Da Vinci, Philippino Lippi. But not they are the main actors of the life of Florence, then the main city of the world. And two brothers who are going to Easter Mass: Junior – Handsome, Knight, Football Player and Ladies (Hearing, Simoneette Cattaneo, Spring and Venus Sandro Bhothichelli, is his beloved) – Juliano, and Senior – Politician, Poet, Butterist, Metsen – Lorenzo. Their last name – Medici.
They have been ruled by this city for almost 10 years, they made it the city of permanent holidays and fun, city of music and poetry, an island of antiquity in the world of Middle Ages. And only the nosed Savonarol, seeing it, constantly grieves, but Lorenzo monk like.
The brothers do not know that quite recently they escaped death. Twice they were invited to dinner, going to poison, but the unexpected illness of Juliano confused cards to conspirators. On the way, Cardinal Rafaello Riaario joins them. He hugs Juliano by the shoulders – checks the presence of armor. There are no armor.
The chariot of history stops on a fork of two roads. On one of the roads written "Medici", another – "Pazzi", And the conspirators are they them, representatives of the famous Bancakers and the second on the influence of the family in Florence. It’s hard to say why Pazzi could not wait a couple of years. Lorenzo Medici is not for nothing nailed magnificent, but the splendor is worth a lot of money. As Makiavelli writes, Renato Pazzi even offered instead of a conspiracy just to prevent medics of money under a high percentage. But the offer did not pass – at the instigator of the attempt, Pope Siksta IV, there was no time to wait.
But back to Messe. Brothers push apart from each other. Francesco Pazzi with such rage strikes Juliano dagger, that manages to hurt at the same time and herself. Juliano is dead, later in it there are 19 wounds. Lorenzo, wounded in the neck, lucky: Quickly realized what was the case of Angelo polyciano, it is possible to shove Lorenzo in the nearest chapel and push the attackers with a sword.
After some time, Lorenzo with a bandaged neck appears on the balcony of her palace. The choice is made. History chariot dials through the journey. Procession of supporters of the Pazzi in the city with cries "Down with Tirana" and "People and freedom" It is found in a hail of stones. Attempt to capture the building of the city administration also ends with failure.
Well, on. Then everything was as usual. Citizens took up the work of Ryano and with wild ecstasy: most of both the Pazzi themselves and their supporters, real and imaginary, were confused by them. Boys in those days the heads played football, and their mother from hearts and liver "enemies of the people" Cook soup. Those who did not get the crowd were posted from the windows of Palazzo Vecchio. Later will also come with a descendant of Pazzi and Dr. Annibal Lecter. But it is in the book and in the movies.
In real life, the Pazzi has almost no left, their property was confiscated, the coat of arms with dolphins is prohibited, the women of Pazzi raised to take into his wife under the threat of the accusation in Bunte. ONLY Capella Pazzi, a masterpiece of ingenious brunelles, preserved. It will be discussed later.
The opponent of the attempted Renato Pazzi assassinates, but the 17-year-old Cardinal Riaario survived – first he went to jail, and then he was sent back to Rome. But all this is another story, we are also interested in the site of conspiracy Pazzi – Cathedral of the city. We will talk about it in more detail.
In his place, at first there was another church, the Church of the Holy Repair. Why, it was this saint in the 3rd century in Palestine in Palestine appeared on the night before the decisive battle with Goths in 405, the commander of Stylich, science, as they say, is not known. But the church of the reparation after the victory of the stylik received.
More than half-thousand years, the church calmly defended himself until, finally, in the dark Italian heads of the city authorities did not come to build a new cathedral in her place, who had to overshadow similar buildings of Tuscan rivals in her place.
In theory of the designers, the cathedral was supposed to accommodate the entire population of the city, which was at that time, not much not enough – 90,000 people. Dedicated "Corn Square" St. Virgin Mary with Lily Flower in Hand (Santa Maria del Fiore), and in 1294 Construction work began. At one time they even led the Jotto himself. He, however, quickly distracted by campaign, which, however, also did not have time to finish.
From the old church, the reparations destroyed in 1375, the new cathedral got the simple lines and two bell tower, as well as the old name, unacceptably weathered from the heads of citizens. This problem was solved as well as such problems always solve: the city authorities introduced large fines for using the old name – and the new name was able to introduce.
The facade of the cathedral remained unfinished and pleased the eyes of Donatello statues, until he, not Donatello, of course, at the direction of Francesco I, the Medici did not replace on painted canvas, pre-put the old plates for a new floor. Canvas housed to the XIX century. And then Florence began at the time of the capital of Italy – and in a voluntarily compulsory order, the facade was acquired, which I didn’t like everything at once, so I still don’t like everyone. Eh, return that, "Involished".
The cathedral itself retained his harsh appearance to the present day, although it was decorated for a number of centuries with numerous works of art. On several of them we will focus on.
- Duomo, interior
- &# 39; crucifix&# 39; – Fresco Mazacho
- Congreter John Hokwood – Fresco Paolo Accounting
- Clock – Fresco Paolo Accounting
Since the essence of Renaissance was to learn how to manage a reality, the teaching about the future played an important role. Perspective in painting introduced Mazacho, which became one of the main events in the history of painting. His "Trinity" written on the wall Duomo, but the skeleton of Adam, the first person, as if he was in the excavation under the stone protrusion. Ibid – inscription: "I was what you are, and there is something you become". And above the protrusion – the crucified Christ hangs on the cross in real space, as if in the side limit. It’s hard to believe that these are not bulk forms, but only painting.
The doctrine of Mazacho about the future was developed in the works of another genius of revival – Paolo. A new occupation absorbed accumulations completely, days and nights didn’t draw something, invented the formula. When his young wife reminded him that it was time to sleep, he, with difficulty with his work, exclaimed: "What a sweet thing – perspective". Wife talking strongly offended.
It is difficult to say, fed Florentines or they really didn’t have money, but the equestrian statue of the famous condacker John Hawkwood, who defended the city record for a long time, they decided to replace the appropriate fresco in Duomo. The fresco instructed to fulfill account. He fulfilled: a huge monochrome (monochrome) fresco depicts a non-living person, but its equestrian statue, and not a simple. At the bottom pedestal, the viewer looks at the bottom up, and on a hokwood with a horse, that in this pedestal is inhabited, from top to bottom. Such is a three-dimensional image. Who say cubism invented? In which age?
Avangard rarely meets the understanding of contemporaries – and in this case he did not meet. There was a scandal. Miraculous frescoes not smeared. Lucky.
About accounted for, this very mysterious genius, a quatropento, who beat his time, we still talk to particularly, if you still risk to go to the UFITSTI Gallery (and how to go there – you will not go out!), but for now, let’s pay attention to the clock with a 24-hour dial, going to the wrong side, the work of the same accounted for, who would doubt. They, by the way, still go.
When the old Florentine Cathedral became small, and it happened in the 13th century, it was decided to build a new one, but so as not to stay at all without the cathedral. And the new church began to erect around the old. A hundreds of years, people went to Messe to the old temple, decorated him, were buried in it. Much of it has been preserved to this day. And in 1972 the tomb was found in his depths. And on it the inscription on Latin: "Corpus Magni Ingenii Viri Philippi Brunelleschi Florentini", "Filippo Bruntelleski, Florentine Big Talent".
Duomo was built incredibly long. It is also clear: the neighbors of the Pisantsev have already been 200 years as Piazza Dei Miracoli, and so as not to burst from envy to them, it was necessary to create something that burst from the envy already hated pisa. Prestige question, so to speak. Architect invited the best of their time – Arnolfo de Cambio. The architect unexpectedly took up work from an unusual side, from the side of the facade. He was, among other things, a great sculptur, and for the company created several sculptures for the facade, but he did not have time to finish. Up to the 16th century all defended "as it is", While the ambitious architect named Bernardo Buontalenti did not solve "Finish construction". To begin with, he decided to disassemble the facade de Cambio "To the base" together with marble, mosaic and sculptures to "then". Only with "then" There were problems: the patron saint of Bernardo Francesco Medici in speed died from poisoning, and the speech about the update of the facade was no longer. However, it would be more correct to say that only about him was. Officials, builders and other intellectuals tried and ranked, took and rejected projects. The point was delivered only in the XIX century, and I already wrote about it. But still Florentines, when they want to point out something, stretched in their opinion, unbearably long, they say: "It lasts as long as the construction of the cathedral".
- Duomo, facade
But that facade! With him at least did not arise technical difficulties. Here is the dome – it was another thing! Di Cambio did not even come close to his construction, the followers thought it was even smaller in the subject, so they did everything possible, only to do nothing. By the beginning of the 15th century, the rest of the church was ready – the dome was not even in the project. Built his man of big talent.
An architectural competition was held – Filippo Brunelands won him and won him. There was only one problem: the qualifying committee itself did not believe that the dome can be built at all. Theoretically, such Makhina could be built using forests, but who will pay such waste?! Bruneland promised to build without forests. Crazy, you will take, I decided the Commission and put it in his superiors "Verified man", Lorenzo Hibey. With Hibacy Bruntelleski already faced, it was Hiberti who took the order for the manufacture of the gate in the Florentine Baptistery, the gate, subsequently called by paradise gates. As the work is shown, perforgles for the competition, he would have happened at least not worse.
However, this is an alternative story, and in the history of the real two appointed architects swore for days, and the work did not move. Brunelands, among other things, did not like to share their knowledge with others. He spent his experiments secretly, cutting bricks from beets. At the end of the tests, beetral structures were ruthlessly eaten.
As if Hibey was not enough, the officials continued to flutter the nerves of Filippo:
– What can’t be, can not be!
– If the cathedral was dedicated to someone else, not the Holy Virgin Mary. – Bruneland answered – but Virgin Mary will not give an erected dome to fall.
The Commission did not find that.
With Hibey Bruneland fought with an old way, known to any student: he announced himself to the sick and waiting for work without him. In his absence, work really faded quickly and with enviable regularity.
Forests really not needed. At the beginning of the 15th century, Philippo, together with his friend Donatello traveled to Rome to learn from the works of the Great Archors. It is in Rome that he spied the method of placing bricks in such a way that they did not scatter under load, but supported each other. The ideas of the Romans were supplemented and developed, the number of building machines and tools, specially invented bruvenles, was calculated in dozens. Brunelands created even one dome, but two: one in the other, and between them the staircase, 463 steps. It was easier to build. The most wonderful architectural miracle of the 15th century was created in just 15 years. And on the dome of Filippo, there was a light strap lamp, which finally stabilized the whole building. So the cornerstone holds the arch.