Ticket to Luxor
My longtime friend Oleg Two years ago unexpectedly successfully sold his hopeless, in my opinion, business and one beautiful spring day changed its social status: from the category of debtors switched to the category of creditors. He suddenly became interested in life in all its manifestations and, in particular, was addicted to traveling.
I do not remember when it’s exactly the first time he went to Egypt, but I remember his exciting stories about the beauties of the Red Sea in the area of Hurghada (among other things, he was carried away by snorkeling). I, capable of shallow dive and preferably in the bathroom, asked if he visited Luxor. Oleg replied that he had no such opportunity that it was a pity that was even an hour to part with the affectionate sea at the time when a blizzard raging on a distant homeland. Next year, he went to Sharm El Sheikh. And his delight was again unlimited.
– But really, I was outraged, – beauty let even one of the most picturesque on the planet of the seas can be shaved so much that he would not want to look at the immortal creations of large people who lived at a time when in the territory occupied by Moscow, the bear could be met rather than man.
– Maybe, "Oleg answered convinced. – And besides, that there is such a thing in this Luxor, so that I wandered around the heat from the sunset to dawn? Pre convince me there. Morrow.
First, you do not have enough weeks. One Englishwoman, hitting the ABIDOS (for the Egyptians of the Pharaoh era, this place meant more than for Catholics of the Middle Ages Vatican), remained there for twenty-five years. And because of the shortage of money for the return ticket. Well, God with them, with Englishwomen. You need to go for two weeks at least ten days. Then you will have time almost all. Of course, such a trip is more expensive, but this is your dream trip. Week in Hurghada, Week on Nile – Excellent Thought. Priority is not so significant. All the details of the trip need to stipulate in advance with the travel agency in Moscow, so as not to spoil their vacation with unexpected household inconveniences.
From Hurghada to Luxor you can get either using vehicles or by plane. And the one and the other option has its advantages and its drawbacks. The airfriment appears to me the best, because you have impressions ahead and so there will be a lot.
To get acquainted with the sights of Upper Egypt did not tired you physically, make a trip to the cruise liner. Winter routes from Luxor to Aswan are popular for unusually, especially among tourists from Western Europe. And it is not surprising. First, magnificent service, at the same level of convenience and entertainment; Secondly, in five to seven days, it is possible to get acquainted with almost all the most famous monuments of Upper Egypt; Third, opening with the Nile landscapes are so unique in their greatness that with their help you suddenly open the space nature of such a category as time. However, the cruise on the Nile – the topic for a separate conversation, and we are held at the point of departure – in Luxor.
His world fame and even more – life itself – is related to the fact that Luxor is located on the spot, the capital of the new kingdom. It is unlikely that modern architecture or life lifestyle could inspire anyone to such a poetic name of the city. Translated from Arabic (A1 UQSUR) means "Palaces". Here, in the treasury of the pharaohs of the XVIII and XIX dynasties, military prey, tribute and taxes flowed. Each of the rulers tried to surpass the predecessor in the luxury of temples and tombs, in the grandinity of memorial complexes. And they managed it. Most of the trophies was intended to be the Fan-our God of Amon, who soon became the Supreme God of Egypt under the name of Amon-ra.
However, the breaks are still long before receiving the status of the capital were widely known in Egypt. Not far from them, just upstream Nile, there was one of the most important religious places – ABIDOS. It was found here the most ancient of the famous pharaoh tombs, belonging to about 3150 BC. From Abydos related and two legends that predetermined its value. The first one refers to the very dawn of history when the deity of Atum on the border of the desert guarded the generic cemeteries located at the Western Hills. At sunset, the ancient residents saw Atuma in the form of a gilded staircase in the afterlife and wished to be buried at her foundation. But even more significant was the connection of Abidos with the legend of Osiris. As you know, he was killed by Brother Set and, so that Osiris could not resurrect, dismembered his body into pieces and hid them in different places. However, the wife of Osiris, Isis, all found and collected in his love. Osiris came to life for a time sufficient to conceive the son of the mountain. After that, Osiris was re-burned in parts and, in particular, his head – in Abidos. After some time, the lovely Osiris again rested and assumed the powers of Lord and the judges in the afterlife.
Every year in January in Abidos, the Mystery was played, in its scale superior all that you can imagine. Thousands of actors participated in the performance, and ten more tens of thousands of pilgrims came to view from all Egypt. The gilded statue personified Osiris, the role of his son, the mountain, played by Pharaoh himself, and the priests and the priests were made to Atuum, Isido, Set and PR.
In general, be that as it may, by virtue of whether favorable strategic location, is due to the proximity to the main cult shrine, due to the fact of the reasons, but the dicks for a long time became the main city of ancient Egypt. For us, this fact is not important, but its consequence. It is here that the most impressive complexes that have survived to this day are. They are located on both shores of the Nile. On East – Carnac and Luxor. On the Western – the valley of the kings, the valley of the tsaritz, the tombs of the nobility and village of artisans.
Construction scope, and the sizes of the complex in the carnak are stunned. It seems that all this was built not without personal participation of Amon. Probably so it was, except that God lived in the hearts of the ancient architects, heating their already inconceivable enthusiasm.
In addition to the huge collection of monuments that make up the sanctuary, the territory of 25 hectares is adjacent to it, on which twenty small temples and shrines are located. Ten pylons together with palaces, halls and extensions surround the center of the sanctuary. To the east of him there is a huge hall for the festivities, north – the temples of Pta and Montu, south-sacred lake, the temples of Mut and Honsu, the Sphinx alleys connecting the construction of each other and with the Luxor temple. Active construction was carried out with short breaks for more than two hundred and fifty years. However, if we take into account that Alexander Macedonian and subsequent rulers from the Ptolemyev dynasty attached to the restoration of the complex and the construction of new attacks, to talk about the exact deadlines and completion of construction seems to be meaningless.
It is hardly worth a pedantically to get acquainted with all the sights of the complex. You do not have enough strength and time. But be sure to walk along the Sphinx Alley, admire the wonderful landscapes opening from the shrine of the Sacred Lake and experience pride for human genius and work, before which is not authorized in the Hypostyle Hall of the Amon Temple.
Luxor complex and value, and in the area is inferior to Carnac. But these comparisons are inferior, surpasses – albeit you will not be injected. Yes, Luxor is small, but not by our standards. It smoothly repeats the coastline of the Nile only 230 meters in length. The main buildings were performed under Amenhotep, 1414 – 1397 BC. NS.), the key theme of the temple is the version of the wonderful birth of Pharaoh as a result of the Union of his mother with God Amon. Visiting the complex, you will most likely believe this version too.
Pharaohs of the new kingdom abandoned the construction of majestic pyramids on a banal reason – they feared the ordinary looting. In the allies, they decided to take natural fortifications and began to build their tombs deep in the mountains, where it was possible to get through the tunnels. By the way, their hopes were not destined to come true, and enterprising treasure seekers investigated Mausoleums along and across long before the appearance of archeology as science. Only one of the tombs miraculously remained, maybe, by virtue of his insignificance. We are talking about the little tomb of the young Pharaoh Tutankhamon (1333 -1323 BC.NS.), which was found in 1922 Howard Carter. Thanks to this discovery, the name of Pharaoh itself received fame in the wide layers of modern society almost more than all other royal names. The Cairo Museum received the pearl of his collection, the fictionists – hundreds of new plots, and the schoolchildren of the whole world by the efforts of Hollywood – the next monster, which in reasonable limits tickles nerves and is ultimately a pleasant addition to pop root and peps-cola. In Tutankhamon’s tomb, there were more than 5 thousand precious objects, including: a gold-plated chariot, a front throne, the wooden base of which was covered with leaf gold, was inlaid by blue faience and red glass, vases, weapons, sandals.
In total, more than 60 tomb was found in the valley of the kings, but only some of them are open to tourists. On long corridors through a series of cameras and false doors, the traveler falls into the burial arch. At the input opening – quotes from "Dead books". Going on the last path, Pharaoh for 12 nightlings should have passed 12 gates in the company with crocodiles, snakes and other monsters. In the courtyard of Osiris, he met the gods, which Pharaoh confested. His confessions were assessed by truthfulness and purity. Depending on how successfully the last exam was passed, Pharaoh either came to the sky, or eaten evil tweaks.
In the valley of the queen, wives and minors of the children of Pharaohs were buried. As in the valley of the kings, only a few tombs are open to visit.
More or less reliable idea of the lifestyle of the Egyptians can be obtained by visiting the tomb of the yard and scribes, which were considered to be known, but still remained simple mortals, and not the sons of the gods. Most of the burials (and more than 400 them) remained inherited to descendants since the days of the new kingdom. These monuments are enchanting the naive sincerity of the painting – scenes of hunting and fisheries, rural life, holidays and just a fun time. Surprisingly, more than four thousand years have passed, and human worries and joy remain unchanged.
On the edge of the valley, at some distance from the last refuge, the pharaohs built their funeral temples. Khatsepsut, Network I, Ramses II and Ramses are preserved. Especially picturesque temple "Doubtful" Queen Hatsepsut (1492 – 1458 BC. NS.) constituting a single ensemble with surrounding pinkish-purple rocks.
Hatshepsut was not the daughter, not the sister, and maybe his wife or aunts of the first three pharaohs from the tallmamos dynasty. She captured the throne for 24 years and received all the rights and privileges, including the right to wearing beard. Artificial. Divine birth and feats of the queen are perpetuated on the walls of porticors. But the most curious, in my opinion, the detail of the temple has nothing to do with the Hatchepsut. The architect of the complex named Senmut prepared for himself a secret tomb under the first courtyard and left his portrait in one of his hidden corners.
The fate of the complex dedicated to the Great Ramses II, who reigning for 60 years, which can be considered "Golden century" New kingdom. Unfortunately, the ensemble is almost completely destroyed, parts of huge granite colossus in disorder scattered before entering the hypostyle hall.
The feeling that you were on the site of the recent battle of giants, and the dead heroes simply did not have time to bury. By the way, one historical fact is connected with this complex, which, on the one hand, is ridiculous, and on the other – disgusting. The case was happening in the last century. The Archaeologist and Adventurer Giovanni Beltson, who worked on the Government of Great Britain, discovered the Ramses II granite head near the torso remnants. "The face was turned upward. It clearly smiled at me as if anticipating the journey to England". That this journey took place, Beltsoni, according to his own words, it was enough to present the chapter of one of the districts besides other "Gifts" Two banks of Anchovs and Canned Olives. Moreover, this fee turned out to be enough to help workers and equip the ship. Thank God that now is not the XIX century, and our generation, and hopefully our descendants will be able to get acquainted with the great monuments of antiquity in their homeland.