Tibet: Roof Roof Roads
– Computer network specialist;
– Candidate of Biological Sciences.
Punched by the study of high-mountain ecosystems, travel photography and human behavior in extreme environmental conditions.
– Arrived. No more oxygen, – our Chinese conductor-translator, and compatible and state security officer, spoke in English badly, but everything was clear here and without words. Predate enough to breathe.
Tibetan plateau. Flat table at altitudes from four and a half thousand meters. There are almost no roads here, only directions. But on the jeep you can drive in many places. Here are just jeeps here prefer old designs – wide. In modern models of the same Toyota, the cylinders are fit and at an altitude of five kilometers, where the oxygen content is half from the norm, the machines are sick. Just like us. It’s good to push nearby, and then – go under the slide.
But here there are passes and six kilometers. Tibetan asked about this. He smiled: "Yes, and push. The main thing is never to be alone. ". What is true, then true: according to the Tibetan plateau, even on the areas asphalted by the Chinese, nobody goes one. Three five cars. With a car service in the baggage and the triple margin of gasoline. Local residents, of course, will help, but if there is no fuel or the desired piece of iron, then the car becomes just a pile metal.
In general, the friendly people are Tibetans. No, they do not compress you in the arms before the loss of consciousness. And do not crush the hand in the vice of the palms, looking into the eyes. They just welcome. Voice. Gesture. On the road and aside. At the gate and doors. Everywhere. Yes, they see you for the first time and, for sure, will not see again. But it does not matter: you are a person, and therefore, worthy of greetings.
"Tashi Deleg" – Elderly Tibetan leaves the gate of the next caravan Sarah at our arrival. Wide invitation gesture, stretched last syllable "le". And you "Hello", A resident of the roof of the world.
And there are no more questions, doubts and anxiety. First of all your name is in the kitchen and put the thermos boiling water. Water here – value. Hot water – doubly. But you – from the road and you need to get drunk. For this do not take money. While you drink, blissfully feeling lips covered water, they will stand aside, appropriate only to add you again. And so until the gesture tell "enough", Just covered with palm to the pile.
And only now you can talk. But not about who you are and from where it is not good to ask name and place. You can only find out how to contact you. They will ask how you and where.
Generally, traveling on Tibet and difficult and easy to simultaneously. Difficult – due to height, sharp drops of temperature and remoteness from civilization. Easy – thanks to people living here. And live here, almost one Tibetans. They don’t confuse them with anyone. It is more difficult to distinguish the Yakuts from Eskimos than Tibetans from the Chinese. In general, it is not clear how these two nations live together. However, they do not live: it is like two superimposed parallels of one reality. Here are just the Chinese from above, and Tibetans – down.
In the western Tibet of the Chinese, in general, no. With the exception of servants on military bases: who hunting to live at an altitude above 4500? In Shigadze and Lhasa – the two largest cities of Tibet – and those and others live with pile, leading their own, often very modest, business. In state structures and wherein Chinese, Tibetans are required, practically no. Party policy is simple: you want to have a decent job – learn Chinese. Here are just his learn. And if the oral language is even more or less used by the Tibetans, then only units can read the main hieroglyphs.
On TV from nine channels Only one – on Tibetan. And on it, often, moving films in Chinese with Tibetan Titres. Everything would be nothing but many older tibetans are not strong in literacy. However, there it is not needed – on the pink snot on the screen all these soap operas are clear and without translation. And if you consider that the TV in the house of Tibetan is a slight luxury, it becomes clear that the Tibet for Sinematograph is a non-encouraged cannabis field, which is not growing there.
So it turns out that the Tibetans are sitting on the draft work, and the Chinese are managed. That’s why there are almost in almost the cities: do not believe official statistics. Only those who were able to learn the language were detained, partly – took over the culture. And this, in the mass of his own, – the younger generation, who has gone from traditions, is different from the Chinese state of the face.
For the remaining, the top of the dreams – get the driver’s work. Not even for the sake of decent (by local standards) salary, but for the sake of a government car as such. Tibetan family to earn themselves on vehicles, which is able to drive through local soils – unreal. And small rowing, so popular in China villagers, is useless here. All the way in the roads. If in Eastern Tibet, the asphalting of the tracks is in full swing, then in the West – Tish and Ceremak, one refueling to the area and built bridges through almost dry streams, which in the afternoon it is impossible to cross. Between settlements – two to three passes and three hundred kilometers of absolutely desert lands. Get stuck in the middle of the road at night without special equipment – just dangerous for life. Of course, not for Tibetan – the locals are able to sleep on one mat right on top of the cold stones at a minus temperature at a height of five thousand meters. Truly, the adaptability of the human body is almost limitless.
But more anniversary, of course, it’s not likely to get stuck in an unknown Dali, but the usual small dust. She is in Tibet everywhere. After a couple of hours, she penetrates through, it would seem reliably tied polyethylene, not to mention the engine and your underwear. Buying a dozen respirators in Moscow, I naively believed that they could not come in handy. After a week of stay on the roof of the world, I regretted that they bought them little.
Another, "Machine" problem of Tibet – a sharp decrease in temperature after sunset. Several such drops – and about the battery you can forget. Especially if he is not new. So it is necessary to hide the battery from the jeep and drag into the room warmer (this is, of course, the kitchen).
The roads themselves can be divided into two types: those that are laid on the plateau and those that cross the Himalayan ridge, tying the plateau with the lowlands of India and Nepal. From the first – break teeth. From the latter – the veins.
Roads on the plateaua – a small grater of dust, sand and a variety of stones. Because of the large distilts, it is necessary to drive faster and shaking becomes stronger and unpleasant. The main thing is not to fly into the tail of the crawled dune, which overlap often. Private sand can lie with a thin layer and be inconspicuous, but it is enough to fly out of the rut. And well, if you fly to closer.
Roads Through the Himalayas amazed with a huge difference in heights, solid serpentine, rockpads and a similarity of snow avalante. Many sites of the path, while wide in one kola – you can only dispense in special sites. However, the Chinese Himalayan Serpentine decided to rebuild – to develop tourism in the region. So in a few years everything can be different.
It is necessary, of course, pay tribute to modern Chinese – thanks to them in Tibet there are, for example, electricity. That’s just not always it can "Eat". Because it goes to military bases and other state importance objects. To coach Tibetan villages that are nicknamed by us "Talibans", Do not belong. And a proven our method – to hook "Crocodile" and "May there be light" – It does not work here. Because there is nothing to cling to what: the power line is presented not with a bare three wires, but by one multicore insulated cable. This, of course, is very expensive, but it drags sharply. Which, with such drops of temperatures and height, is very large.
The truth of the Tibetans themselves is not completely confused. Because Darm Energy – Darkness: The uniqueness of the plateau is consisting of 363-day sunny days and 100mm of precipitation per year. So eat on the roofs of the houses of solar panels. They can be bought even in the most sad shopping shop. In the kitchen there is a battery and from it the wires crawling throughout the caravan shed to light bulbs and a new-fashioned TV. True, despite the same standard of the network – 220 volts, charge, for example, your mobile phone will not be able to: no sockets. And if there is something else connector. Often – and no switches for light bulbs. Well, why are they needed, if the same light can be unscrewed a bit – and it will go out? And you can not unscrew – all the same charge batteries in the evening there is enough hours for three maximum – myself goes out.
Therefore, a dynamo lantern bought in Moscow, I got out of us a couple of times. Clepen adapter and wind the handle – 20 minutes work and energy in the mobile phone there are two days.
And what about the connection, then it is. And it can be "Eat". Through roaming, of course. But everything works fine. It is worth a small tower on the hill, near – satellite dish and three or four rows of solar panels. All: Communication within a radius of 5-8 kilometers is provided. Each village, in which more than 10-15 yards are endowed with. Here are Tibetan women with mobile phones in Podol. By the way, maybe it’s so lucky me, but I have not seen men with mobile phones.
Call from those places via mobile communications, of course, it is not worthwhile – the diploma comes out, but send SMS. Yes, and the point of calling something, if every more or less "developed" village there is a hubar with a proud signboard "China Telecom", Where (through the same plate) can be called, for example, in Moscow for 6 yuan per minute. And it does not matter that they open this booth specifically for you, and the dried carcasses of Yakov hang inside – hearing is excellent, and what else?
Separately, it is worth saying about the piece of iron that is in every yard, with a disturbance name "Hellioconcentrator". A stunning thing in which you do not need to eat hands or other parts of the body, if you do not want to acquire the view and smell of Paveny Chicken. I, of course, could not resist and shoved my hand – as in boiling water he pleased. Still – 15 minutes and a hefty kettle with water boils. And just business: focusing rays and no wires.
It is a pity, of course, but the privacy of Tibetan expanses comes to an end. And soon travelers are unlikely to see the original life of Transgimalayev. It is clear that the people every year – more and more. But the complexity of the road and the height carried out a good selection.
The Chinese government came firmly for Tibet. Rapid pace build roads and infrastructure. Already in Lhasa – the capital of Tibet – the railway branch from the lower life reached. Trains – sealed so that the Chinese will not fall into the height.
On the one hand – good. Now, for example, you can drive from our Gorno-Altaisk Alto Nepali Kathmandu and South. On the Chui tract in the Mongolian Altai, bypassing the Spangling Sign Gobi Desert, climb Tibet. And on him, dear friendship go down to Nepal. Twenty years ago it was possible to dream about it.
On the other hand – less will be wildlife and original Tibetan culture. And silence on the roof of the world will no longer be.