Sultan Salah Ad-Dean (Saladine)
Saladin (Salah Ad-Dean), the Kurd on the origin, was born in Tikrite, which became many centuries later the birthplace of Saddam Hussein, and died in Syrian Damascus. The life of the Great Commander, the founder of the dynasty of Ayubid, the winner of the Crusaders and the most famous leader of the Muslim world of the 12th century passed mainly in the campaigns and battles outside Egypt. But it was he who became one of the most famous national heroes of this country. Man thanks to which Egypt returned his glory, power and greatness, it would seem forever who left since the times of Pharaoh.
In the West and East up to our time, this famous Egyptian is called Saladin or Salah Ad-Din, even though it is not the name of his own, and the honorary title translates "piety of faith". His name was Yusuf Ibn Ayub (full name with all titles: al-Malik An-Nasir Salah Ad-Daniya Va-Ad-Dean Abul-Muzaffar Yusuf ibn Iyub). The winner of the Crusaders, oddly enough, was respected in the Christian world, where the Great Communion was appreciated for the unrestrained courage and generosity to the losers (the knights themselves did not always have differed in such qualities). In Saladine, the Cairo Citadel was built, into which the nephew of Ad-Dina’s nephew was subsequently transferred the official residence of the Head of the Egyptian state. It is worth noting that the Mohammed Ali Mosque, she is a alabaste mosque, one of the most important buildings of Cairo and the "heart" of the current citadel, no relation to Salah ad-Dina has no. A huge building of the 52-meter in height of the dome and two 270-foot minarets was erected by almost 700 years later the fortress – in the XIX century. Even in the small spa town of Taba, which is in the east of Sinai, there is a fortress of saladine. True, it is significant to unknown, is it a defensive building at least any attitude to Salah hell-Dina or not.
But the architectural sights of Egypt, built by Yusuf Ibn Ayub, is not the only heritage of the famous ruler. In the memory of Muslims, he remained the noble hero of Islam, who returned the Orthodox majority in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Saladin highly appreciated even Saddam Hussein, born in the same city, Tikrit, in the province called Salah Ed Din. The image of Yusuf Ibn Iyuba is widely exploited by Western Mass Culture. Enough to remember the "kingdom of heaven" Ridley Scott, a lot of books and computer games Stronghold Crusader, Medieval II, Age of Empires II, Civilization IV and "Assassin’s Creed".
Rise to power
At the sunset of the Fatimide Board, the history of Egypt entered the phase of infinite domestic disassembly and battles with crusaders and the Turks. Knights were laughed in Egypt three times and even captured Alexandria, built by Ptolemyes and for a long time became the main city of the country. Actually, the Egyptian troops are only the same, which alternately reflected the attacks of the Seljuk and Crusaders, participating in the Blood Interfers in Breaks. Smoot continued until the arrival of the ad-Dina.
Having hardly strengthening its own power in Egypt and measuring the ambitions of the Emirov and the ethnic formations of the army, Saladin quickly captures tripolitania (Libya), Syria, Nubia (Sudan), Kairuan (Tunisia) and Yemen. To legitimize the possession of a huge Muslim empire, Yusuf Ibn Ayub takes one of the widows of Sultan. For some seven years, Saladin managed from ordinary warriors and an official to turn into the powerful Lord of Africa and Asia.
Victory over the Crusaders: Crusade against Jihad
The first battery with the crusaders ended for ad-Din’s salah with a complete defeat. The army was broken, and the commander himself was hardly avoided the captivity or death. Slightly by playing the position and breaking the knights on the island of Ruvad, Saladin proved that military victories are achieved not only by the cavalry swelling. The economic foundation of the chivalry, except for the incredible robberies, was trade in spices. From this they received good profits and many European monarchs. Nothing thinking, Salah Ad-Dean blocked the land paths of caravans and the Krasnomoral trading route, applying an irreparable blow to the wallet of the Crusaders and Italian ports. Christians, not thinking, transferred the problem from the economic in the theological plane and declared a sacred war against the wrong. In response, Saladine also declared a sacred war against the wrong, only called Jihad, and not a crusade.
Not far from Nazareth Muslim warriors inflicted the Christians unprecedented defeat. The number of prisoners of war was so high that the knight on the slave market was given a couple of shoes. After the victory under Nazareth, the capture of Jerusalem followed. It is especially worth noting the nobility and mercy of Al-Ad-Dina’s mercy, which caused respect for him not only from friends, but also in enemies. Yusuf let go to him in captivity of the King of Jerusalem and usually gentle prisoners, while the Crusaders regularly killed the captive Muslims, despite the floor and age. After the seizure of Jerusalem, Saladin even allowed to remain crusaders hospitallers to care for sick people who could not leave the city. By the way, the crusaders themselves were cut out in Jerusalem all Muslims. Also Salah Ad-Dean allowed to come to the Christian shrines of Jerusalem Pilgrims-Christians, in the temple of the Merry Coffin. There was no one to expect such kindness from medieval Christians.
In modern Egypt
Choosing that you can bring from Egypt as souvenirs, not every tourist can dial a couple of scarab bags, pharaohs and "ancient" papyrus, but not to buy anything connected with Saladin or the era of his board. The Epoch of Pharaohs is much more exploited by the tourist industry, although the conquest of the ad-Dina’s salah became one of the most important victories of the Muslim world in history (and most of the modern Egypt – Muslims). Even on Egyptian money, where it was lucky to be Cleopatra, the mosques of Aisi and Al-Khazar, the Mausoleums of Sultanov and Pharaoh’s Pyramids, for some reason, there was no place for saladine.