Sukhumi (Sukhumi) – The largest city and the capital of Abkhazia. The city is located in the central part of the country, 107 km from the border with Russia on the Black Sea coast in Sukhumy Bay. Population – 43,700 people (2003).
Sukhum city is an administrative, political and cultural center of Abkhazia, as well as the main transport and industrial node of the country.
The history of the city has more than 2500 years. This is one of the oldest cities in the world.
During the Abkhaz-Georgian War of 1992-1993, Sukhum was occupied by the troops of Georgia and suffered greatly as a result of hostilities. And today you can still see the dawned buildings on the streets. The city was released on September 27, 1993.
Recent years, the city of Sukhum is restored, the monuments of history and architecture are restored, new modern buildings are being built, the streets are asphalted and the streets are illuminated.
Babeva Bridge – Monument of the ancient Georgian architecture, built in the north of the city of Sukhuma, on the river Fleet (Basla). The arch of the bridge representing a single-role stone arch length of 13 m, complicated from square limestone plates. An important road to the mountain valleys was held in the old days, and the bridge had a large military-strategic importance. Near the bridge and now we can see the ruins of combat towers who defended from the attack of the opponent’s bridge and the entrance to the gorge.
Sukhumsk fortress – One of the oldest monuments of Abkhazia, is located on the seashore, in the city center, between ul. Academician Sakharov and Ul. Voronov. Was founded by the Romans at the beginning of II in. N. NS. Now the coastal wall and bastions fell into the sea. The fortress is a historical and archaeological monument. Since 1952. Archaeological studies are held here, which continue and now.
Castle Bagrata – It is on the mountain, 500 meters from the sea, in the northeastern part of the city. The name received on behalf of Tsar Abkhazia Bagrat III (980-1014.). It was built to protect southern approaches to the city, and also controlled the port, which in those days was at the mouth of the Basly River. Until our time, only the ruins of the once majestic castle are preserved: the walls (their thickness reaches 1.8 m, height from 5 to 8 m) and the remains of the underground stroke that lead to the nearest stream. From the location of the castle there is a magnificent view of Sukhum and its surroundings.
Kelasur (Abkhaz) wall – Also known as the Great Abkhaz Wall – a defensive structure, erected, probably in the V-VI centuries. NS. It begins 5 km from the center of Sukhum near the mouth of the Kelasur River and ends at the right bank of the Ingur River. Significant sections of the wall have been preserved (the predominant of Kelasura’s mouth) and several hundred destroyed towers.
Botanical Garden – His story has more than 160 years. Demonstration of the garden (area of 5 hectares) is located in the city center. Now there are more than 5 thousand. species, shapes and varieties of plants from the whole planet. One of the main attractions is the 250-year-old Caucasian Lipa, which grew here even before the base of the garden.
Apery – Research Institute of Experimental Pathology and therapy of the Academy of Sciences of Abkhazia, in the Spatrical, hereinafter referred to as the Sukhumi Monkey, enjoys world fame. It is located on the slopes of the picturesque mountain. Trapeze, on the territory of the former cottage of the famous our scientist, prof. A. A. Ostrumov. Founded in 1927. Currently, here you can see about 300 individuals of monkeys belonging to 10 different types from Asia, Africa and South America.
Sukhumsky lighthouse – was made in France from steel by Ernest Couin. In 1864 brought and installed in Sukhum. Lighthouse height 37 m. Lighting horizon 24 km. Inside the tower there is a cast-iron twisted staircase, numbering 137 steps. The lighthouse overlooks New Athos and Sukhum.
In Georgian chronicles, the settlement mentioned, starting from the VIII century as Tshumi.
Built in 1724 by the Turks, the fortress and the city began to be called Sukhum Kale.
With the joining of the Caucasus of the our Empire, the Russified Name Sukhum.
In August 1936, the city was officially renamed Sukhumi to Georgian manner, while Toponym Sukhum actually continued to be used together with the new title.
In December 1992, the Supreme Council of the Unrecognized Republic Abkhazia issued a decision to rename Sukhumi to Sukhum.
The same place-name has been specified Roskartographya in October 2008 as the title of the capital of the Republic of Abkhazia after the recognition of the independence of the last our).