Stone talismans saved Peking "Hutun"
War announced by the authorities of Beijing "Hutunam" (old one-story buildings without any hint at the achievement of civilization) is nearing a victorious end. Where a year ago it was possible to dwell in a labyrinth of narrow streets, wide avenues were laid, rest in the sky champed in armor from glass and concrete skyscrapers and shopping centers.
The appearance of modern Beijing, who in 2008 will receive the Olympic Games, must be impeccable, urban officials consider. And thousands of hutunov residents move to new well-maintained multi-storey houses, however, on the outskirts of the capital. And if the youth refers to moving with joy, then for the elderly to leave the house where they were born and where several generations of their ancestors lived, it is pretty hard.
The inhabitants of Khutunov Khutunov Nanlogusyan, perhaps, one of the few who happened to change little disturbed. They calmly look like bulldozers ironing the last ruins of neighboring slums – their demolition area is not subject to. The main merit belongs to the old talismans "Mandu Eve". This is – small (about half a meter) stone stele with a variety of images, set at the entrance to the courtyards. Lotus flowers, lions, dragons, deer, ancient Chinese mythology characters like the famous king of the apes "Journey to the West", for many decades guard Nanlogusyan.
Here mendun a bell with images of butterflies and "weapons of the gods": Bamboo flute, fans of palm leaves, gourds, pumpkins, staff and a basket of flowers. In ancient times it was believed that such symbols at the entrance to the house deters evil spirits, to bring good luck, peace and well-being. Many of today’s old-timers Nanlogusyana also believe in their miraculous power.
Frankly, in some ways they are right. Stone steles were created in the era of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), when many of the local buildings – in those days were considered luxurious – lived chinese know. Today, it is the ancient statues of recognized historical relics saved from the sad fate of the quarter surrounding hutongs. The fact is that according to the decision of city authorities, places of historical value, are not subject to restructuring. Therefore, local huts were just plastered and painted over, replaced wiring and sewerage. And here "mascots" even restore did not, although many of them while heavily battered. "Let stand for what they are – locals say. — Spirits do not like being disturbed".
In general, the demolition of classical Chinese hutongs with their stone courtyards is a sigh of regret about their untimely death and encouraged once again to delve into the past.
History of the word "Hutong" It has its roots in 1271, when the nomadic Mongols crushed the Ching dynasty and settled in Beijing. Word "Hutong" originally meant well or spring. The water was a vital component in the life of the nomadic people, so the Mongols settled mainly in the areas close to the springs. streets formed subsequently adopted the name "Hutong".
In the past, Beijing served as the capital of five powerful dynasties – Liao (916–1125), Jin (1115–1234), Yuan (1271–1368), Min (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911). As a result, the names of many metropolitan zakulkov turned out to be directly related to the ancient authorities. For example, Hubu Huba means in the translation of the Department of State Fees. Another example is the Khutun named after the Ministry of Troops and the Connection, located in the Dongchhan area, where the ancient analogue of the modern Ministry of Defense has previously and was located. And Khutun Jianchhan was generally in the old days of a closed military zone, because a factory was located here for the manufacture of arrows – the main weapons of the enchanting of the Empire. Actually, it becomes apparent from Jianchhan’s title, which translated into our as "boom".
Markets and bazers also played not the last role in the life of the Chinese past times, therefore the names of many streets are directly related to the specialization of a particular trading point. Walking through the Beijing catches, you will surely come across the hutunas with the names of Yanushi (Baranov Market), Zhushi (Pork Market), Loshi (Oll Market), Denshi (lamp market) and T.D.
Among the alleys called in honor of various temples and monasteries, the most popular from the local residents of the Khutuns of the Sacred Horse, the streets with such a name appeared throughout Beijing about 20. Love and worship before the four-legged animals were transferred by Chinese from the Mongols, who were settled in Beijing in 1271. Like any nomadic people, Mongols considered horses the main means of movement. And even settling in cities, did not drop the habit of ride horses. "Almighty Divine Horse" So remained for them as an object of worship and exercise. And the streets where the temples of the Sacred Horse were erected, the names of Hutuna Mashanmäo received the same name. Over time, many of the temples came to decline, but the streets still keep old names to this day.
Such names like such names like "pocket" and "Pumpkin Gorlyanka". The latter, it is worth noting, was used in the near past as a vessel for liquids. The Chinese, gifted by the streets with such names, were very logical. And pocket, and only one hole has a bottle-like pumpkin, so it turned out with the Hutunov of the same name: the entrance simultaneously served and exit. Wishing to see this personally, we tried to pass through three different hutunas with the title "pocket" And every time at the end of the street stumbled on a dead end.
The names of almost all vintage Beijing streets carry a qualitative characteristic. For example, long and narrow streets often received the name of the racing post, winding streets, full turns and bends, were called a braid. The greatest number of turns – their 13 – famous ancient butt in the Chunven area, named, however, Hatun nine arcs. The number 9 of the sincerely was considered the search for the search, apparently, so the number of turns marked in the title was decided to reduce from valid 13 to 9.
Sometimes happened so that the hutun did not have any distinctive feature, and not to leave the street nameless, took the name "With ceiling" — Thus appeared Hutun dog tail, Hutun Bull Blood, Hutun Chicken Paw. However, afterwards, many of the original names by the Chinese authorities are intact. The period of renaming Hutunov. So born hutun magnificence (in Chinese Lanman). Initially, he was called Lanmian, which is translated as "Updated noodles". According to one of the versions, in the old days in the area of Beijing, there was a great set of Harcheven, the crown dish of which was invariably noodles. In those days, any dish was prepared in iron pylons heated on fire. And noodles often got a digestible.
Another legend says that his name Hutun is obliged to someone. This chef deliberately digested noodles, trying to please the elderly customers who have long lost their teeth and could not chew food. The popularity of the establishment of the city of Yu Dasyana prompted the owners of other eateries to adopt a competitor’s trick, and since then has become a digestible noodles became the main dish of the district. The name has persisted up to 1950, when the street and became a hutun splendor.
Such fate suffered and Hutun Gaoibo (the Khutun of the Right Husband), called the earlier Goiba (literally "doggy tail"). And Yabaola (the street of refinement and grace), on which the our market famous for all China is located in the old days, was named silent (Khutun Yab).
A change in the names of Chinese streets and Zakulkov is a clear displeasure of many studies of antiquity; Many of them believe that with a change in names to more harmonious, but less colorful, as well as with the demolition of a huge number of hutunov on the eve of the future Olympiad Beijing shespiring his cultural heritage. Nobody, except for an old dilapidated hutun, will not tell you so clear about the history and culture of the city, for Hutun and there is herself "encyclopedia" Beijing.