Stockholm – Northern Venice
This northern city, the capital of Sweden, built on the fourteen islands, which are a small part of a whole archipelago, consisting of 24,000 islands, really resembles Venice. Stockholm is located in the area of the modelland, on the southeast coast of Sweden. He spread on the shores of Lake Melarien and on the Islands of the Strait connecting the lake with the Baltic Sea. The population of the city is about 740 thousand people, the vast majority of residents – Swedes, the most significant minority make up the Finns, also lives here a large number of Iranians, Iraqis, Turks and immigrants from Somalia. Most residents confess Lutheranism.
The city was founded in 1252 by Rixgraf Breast Birger. In view of its important strategic position, in the whole of Stockholm was destined to become a transit trading point. He became the capital of the state only in 1634, during the thirty-year war. The Swedish kingdom as a centralized state was formed only in the middle of the XIII century, when the Wolkung Dynasty, the descendants of Birger, who ruled in Sweden in 1248-1266, who suffered a defeat in the Nevsky Battle in 1240 (according to the legend, who received Alexander Nevsky’s hands on the face ).
Then the development of trading with Danzig and Lubejcom and Stockholm’s accession to the Hanseatic Union led to the economic rise of the city. However, feudal fragmentation in the country and a hundred years of Czechards in the Swedish throne ended with submission to Sweden Denmark. In 1523, Sweden finally dropped the IHO, and Rigsdag (meeting of representatives of the estates of the country) elected the king of the leader of the national liberation uprising of the Swedish nobleman Gustav Vasa. The most famous king of this dynasty was Gustavi II Adolf, famous during the thirty-year war and turned Sweden into a strong European power. At this time, the city began to develop rapidly as the economic and political center of the country. Monarchs of the Vasa dynasty left Stockholm baroque magnifoxy – beautiful palaces rich royal collections.
However, this dynasty could not be held at the Swedish throne until today. At the beginning of the XIX century, the question of the throne appeared in Sweden. No heir, Swedish King Karl XIII addressed advice to the emperor Napoleon. A letter to Paris King The Swedish Lieutenant appealed to one of Napoleonic Marshals, Jana Batistu Julia Bernadoto, prince Pontecorvo, famous for military campaigns in Belgium and Germany, with a proposal to become a throne in Sweden. Interestingly, in 1798 Bernadot married Desire Caria, the daughter of the Marseille shipowner, who has been an affair with Napoleon Bonaparte a few years before. Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s elder brother, was married to sister Desire – Juli, so Bernadot turned out to be a relative of Bonaparts.
In 1810, Swedish Rigsdag elected Bernadet by the Swedish Crown Prince under the name of Karl Yuhan, who replaced Catholicism on the arrival in Stockholm to Protestant. Bernadov dynasty and to this day rules Sweden. 74th King of Sweden Karl XVI Gustav is related to relationship with our kings, English Wilhelm Conqueror, Swedish Gustav Vaza, Danish and Norwegian monarchs. He was born in 1946, he studied at the University of Uppsa, and in 1972, a novel with the translator of Sylvia Zommerlat, half the German, half-brazilyan, was started at the Olympic Games in Munich. He was the first of the direct heirs of the crown changed the existing policy of royal origin by choosing Cinderella in his wife. Two girls were born from this marriage – today’s heiress of the throne Princess Victoria and Princess Madleyin – and Prince Karl Philipp. Monarchy in Sweden has purely representative prerogatives, but remains part of the historical mentality of the nation.
King is an ordinary person. This once again confirms its gastronomic preferences. Like any Swede, he loves the Swedish salad (it is the leaves of salad with pieces of cucumbers, tomatoes and sweet peppers), red fish dishes (slices of salmon under white, mustard sauce or curry sauce or sprinkled with fragrant dill, which are always present and everywhere, not The exceptions they are at the celebrations during the presentation of the Nobel Prizes), Salmon Cutlets, Shrimps and Cancer, Smoked Eel and, of course, delicious meatballs. All this – snacks, hot and cold, can be part of the buffet (which, by the way, for two hundred years) or is served as separate dishes.
Stockholm consists of water channels (almost the entire center can be examined with a boat, but the fourteen islands of Stockholm are connected by bridges, so it is good to travel around the city and walk) and by 30 percent of parks and green sites, and in Skansen, Museum and Outdoor Museum, Founded in 1891, you will see a whole collection of 160 wooden farms and houses from all over Sweden. On each farm lives the real animals – domestic cattle, birds, dogs. It makes the park also and the zoo. In Stockholm there is the first National Park – Eco Park. Construction here is allowed only if it does not cause damage to the environment, biosystems and cultural objects. Another park, Kungstradgarden, – Normal, only appeared in the XV century. Then he was Royal "cabbage garden", where they grown fruit and vegetables. Today is an ordinary recreation park. In Stockholm, very clean air: affects the effect of the sea, which determines and temperature. In the summer it fluctuates in the range of 20-25 ° C, in winter – from +2 to -7 ° C. It is said that water in the Stockholm channels is so clean that it is possible to swim and fish can even in the city center.
The night and restaurant life of the city is incredible, which at first glance may seem uncharacteristic for this calm northern city. This is especially felt in the summer, because there are very bright long evenings, or short nights, that, in fact, the same thing. It is believed that here there are as many restaurants per capita, as in Paris, and club life can satisfy even the most demanding entertainment lover. Sweden is the third exporter of pop music after the United States and the United Kingdom. It all started with the success of the legendary ABBA in the 1970s, then worldwide popularity won Roxette and Cardigans.
Fans of a more serious holiday in Stockholm are waiting for 150 museums and art gallery, the Dramaten National Theater, the Konserthuset concert hall; In the Swedish capital, every November is held International Film Festival. Ingmar Bergman and Greta Garbo grew in Stockholm. Astrid Lindgren lives here, Mom Carlson, Peppi Longs and Emille from Lebonergi. Her books are translated into 76 languages, sold more than 80 million copies around the world. She was born in 1907, lives in Stockholm since 1925. In 1997, Astrid Lindgren was named "Swede year".
Stockholm metro – something like works of art. It is known as "The longest exhibition", In the mid-fifties, it was officially decided to decorate the metro stations that designers and artists continue to do to this day. Particularly interesting Stations of Central Station and Kungstradgerden. In 1998, Stockholm was declared the capital of Europe Culture. Every year in December in Stockholm, as they say here, the whole world comes – on the presentation of the Nobel Prize.
Swedish capital can be divided into several parts. The oldest part of the city – Gamla Stan and Stadsholmen-situated on the islands. In areas of Norrmalm and Ostermalm concentrated administrative, cultural and business life of the capital, and in Sodermalm Vasastaden – restaurants and entertainment.
Stockholm attractions weight. To name just the most basic. Stockholm Old Town – Gamla Stan on the island Riddarholmen (Knights island) – it is the heart of the Venice of the North. Here preserved old buildings XVII and XVIII centuries, allows you to experience the spirit of medieval Northern Europe. Walking during the day and at night through the narrow streets of this quarter, which centuries ago was the site of executions and at the same time grand royal celebrations, you might imagine yourself a medieval knight or a beautiful lady. Old Town is rich with palaces – big (Wrangel Palace, Palace Stenbokkov Palace Bund) and small (formerly private palace Axel Uksensherny, Storkirkobrinken, Tessinsky Palace, Palace Slottsbakken). In the Old Town are many restaurants and cafes are open for you. On the bustling historic waterfront Sheppsbrun preserved merchant houses of the XVII century.
Djurgerden island was once the hunting ground of kings, located on the right side from the center, forms a green area where fair and open museums operate on weekends, including the famous museum "Vasa".
Kungliga Stottet, the Royal Palace, in the heart of the city on the island of Riddarholmen, was the residence of the Swedish monarch until 1982. Today King Carl XVI Gustaf receives ambassadors of other countries here. This baroque building was built in 1692, its appearance has changed a bit since then, but some of the medieval castle Three Crowns have survived to this day. First settled here in 1754 by King Adolf Fredrik and his wife, Queen Lovisa Ulrika, one of whose sons was the future King Gustav III of Sweden. Today the palace is open to the public. Here you can see the facilities knightly orders, the state assembly hall, the royal treasury, collection of antiques that belonged to Gustav III of, the royal chapel, banquet halls, as well as watch the changing of the guard.
Drottningholm Palace, the royal residence (with his Chinese pavilion acting and today the court theater and parks, existing since the XVIII century), the first in Sweden was incorporated in 1991 in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Museum of National Antiquities, ton.E. Historical Museum, shows the country’s history from prehistoric times, restores the Viking culture, there is a magnificent collection of medieval wooden church sculpture.
In Stockholm, many interesting museums, but it is truly the most unusual is a museum dedicated to warship "Vasa", because the whole museum – this is the ship itself. It was built in 1628 on the orders of the great dynasty of King Vasa and Gustavus Adolphus, equipped with 64 guns, had become the most powerful of his era galleon. "Vasa" It was built in Stockholm Dutch shipbuilder Henrik Hibertsonom. On the day of the launching of thousands of citizens flocked to the promenade. The ship gave a salute and a few minutes after launching slowly began to sink into the water. Of the 150 people who were on board, about fifty killed. Captain "Vasa" He was taken into custody. King Gustav Adolf, who was at that time on the battlefield in Poland, learned about the tragedy only after two weeks. It turned out that the main ship engineer Henrik Hibertson died the year before "Vasa" It was completed. The case was continued by his brother. The investigation established that the ship was well built, but its proportions were wrong met. In addition, it was loaded with artillery, and ballast, which was to create a counterbalance to all this weight was not enough. "Vasa" It was found in 1956 and raised from the bottom in 1959, and in April 1961, appeared in the Stockholm harbor after trehsottridtsatiletnego break! In 1962 he opened a temporary museum "Vasa", and in 1990 – the modern, where you can see the giant ship itself, and found it objects and tools.
Sweden is rich in tradition. Christmas – truly the most ambitious and longest holiday in Sweden. Four Sundays preceding Christmas, last Christmas post. Then start preparing for Christmas. Everywhere open Christmas markets, where you can enjoy a variety of sweets, try the smoked sausages, reindeer meat, drink it all mulled wine (hot wine with spices appears during the feast of St. Lucia on December 13 and sold on the streets throughout the Nativity), as well as to buy a festive table smoked salmon and honey. On urban fairs sell all kinds of items Decorative Art. The Skansen Christmas market also opens. On the longest pedestrian street in Stockholm Drottninggatan shopping compete, opening sales.
Swedish Christmas table are always present, smoked herring, boiled potatoes, meatballs, various sausages, Christmas ham, a dish called "Janson’s temptation" (Potato gratin with marinated Baltic herring) lyutfisk (boiled ling), rice pudding, cheese, bread, and of beverages – beer with salted biscuits julmust. Another Christmas drink – grog (hot red wine with raisins and almonds). It is drunk both before and after the festive dinner. Of particular importance Swedes give coverage during meal time. This, of course, candles of various shapes, sizes and colors. They create a special cosiness in the house. It is very popular in Sweden candlesticks in the form of large pieces of ice become a national souvenir.
Swedish house in the center of Christmas is becoming a Christmas tree, came to this country only at the beginning of the XX century. Its like we dress up tinsel, lights and all kinds of ornaments. Gifts under the tree, too, folded and open in the evening on Christmas Eve. On the morning of Christmas Eve, Swedes visit relatives and meet with friends. In the evening, when the Swedes sit down at the table in the house waiting for Santa. Come from Lapland, coming to Sweden, he replaced the Christmas reindeer. Nutro Many Swedes go to listen to the morning Mass.
A few words about alcoholic beverages. In Sweden "semi-dry" law. Alcohol not sold on Friday, Saturday and Sunday. And all because the Swedes are very fond of strong drink pampered. Since the time of the thirty-year war, during which the Swedish troops invaded the territory of Germany, a German saying remained: "Drunk like seven Swedes". Swedish alcoholic history, as they say, comes out of the our-Swedish wars, after which vodka has become a favorite drink of the Swedes. Pride of Swedes – famous "Absolute", from the local grain, on top of the water, in bottles of local sand with low iron content, with the design of an old pharmacy bottle, which is produced since 1879.