Sights of Yemen
People inhabit the area known now as Yemen, for more than 3000 years. In antiquity, in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, the ancient states of Katan, Hadramaut and Main, as well as the Ministry of Menitary, Sabeysheskoye and the Himyaritic kingdoms, whose power was built on the trade of Mrur and Ladan. Already in the XIV century to the new era, local residents not only collected incense, but also developed an amazing agricultural culture by building a whole network of dams, including a marib system that came to this day. Convenient location on paths from Europe and Africa to India contributed to the flourishing of this land, which in IV in. N. NS. Accepted Judaism, in VI in. – Christianity, however, at the end of V in. N. NS. fell under the power of Sassanids. In the VII century, the Persian Governor Yemen introduced Islam, and in the XVI century, the whole south fell under the authority of the Ottoman Empire, retaining, nevertheless, the set of semi-operated principalities (from 897 g. N. NS. the North Rules of the Zayidi Dynasty, and South – Cairid (from the XV. N. NS.), and both "Stretched" In power until the middle of the XX century).
In 1839. British troops captured Aden and by the end of the XIX. distributed their influence on all South-May Sultanates (North remained under the rule of Turkey, which in 1918. provided him with independence). In 1937. South Yemen officially declared the colony of Great Britain, and in 1959. He entered the Federation of South Arabia, also the colony of foggy albion. In 1962, an antimonarchic revolution occurred in North Yemen, and in South Yemen, the rebels began military actions against British colonial troops. The seven-year-old war led to sad consequences – the Yemen Arab Republic (IAR) was established in the north, based on the aid of Saudi Arabia, the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (NDRY, 1967 g) was proclaimed in the south with the Prommunist Government, which immediately led to a conflict between two States. In 1972. An agreement was signed on "Yemen unity", But by the beginning of 1979. The real war was broke out, in which other Arab countries, as well as the USSR and the United States, intervened to one degree or another. In 1990, two warring countries united in the Republic of Yemen, although the armed conflicts between the supporters of various political movements flashed more than once (it is enough to recall the 1994 Pulls, when the former leaders of the NDRI proclaimed the independent Democratic Republic of Yemen in the south; but were broken by the Yemen Army).
Now this country with a richest history is one of the most unstasted tourists on earth. Most of the Yemen because of the climate features are unsuitable for traditional tourism, but it is truly a gracious edge for extreme leisure lovers. The amazing and diverse world of the desert, low, but picturesque local mountains, the majestic Bab el-Mandantry and about fifty ancient volcanoes, dozens of deserts of medieval settlements and amazing oasis, unique architecture of Yemen cities and large areas of the land processed – all this can provide tourist Many opportunities to explore this land.
If you believe Yemen legends, Sana is one of the first sections of the human settlement on the planet.
8 km north of the capital lies the town Raid, famous for its vineyards, medieval mosque, palace used in our days as a hotel. A little north begins the fertile district of El Boun around the city Amran With his famous old walls of the pre-Islamic period (historians include their construction for the period of the Kingdom of Saba). And a little south, in 36 km north-west of Sana, is located the city of Shibam – one of the semi-round cities with a soft mountain climate (not to be confused with the same name "City of clay skyscrapers", Located significantly east, in Vady Hadramaut). South Shibama begins idyllic valley Wadi Dar, grapes, as well as grenade and citrus gardens. In this area, there is an alternation of fruitless plateau, high mountains and extensive valleys, forming an amazing combination of green arrays on the background of the sun-dried mountains. There is a mountain town between Shibamu and Caucan Tilla (Tula), which is a vivid example of the Yemen Mountain settlement, the fortress, over which the picturesque plateau rises with the ruins of an even more ancient fortress (approximately V in. N. NS.). 15 km north-west of Sana Dar Al-Hadzhar (beginning of XX in.) – Summer Residence Imam, Wedding Rock. Here, a little west of Amran, there is the old town of Hadjj, known for his impressive citadel with an ancient and gloomy underground prison.
100 km northeast of the capital, on the edge of Wadi (dry riverbed) El Jaouf, the town is located Barakish – The ancient capital of the Kingdom of Main (however, people in this place lived already in the XIV. to N. NS.). In V B. N. NS. The city was the most important shopping center surrounded by the most powerful fortification system with a multitude of towers. To this day, only fragments of these impressive fortress walls came from the old building, the ruins of the mosque and the temple in the city center, as well as numerous old stones with inscriptions on the forgotten language, many of which are used as bricks in the construction of newer buildings.
The north of Sanaa lies a beautiful array of two Sahhar Mountains (2306 m) and Mafluk (2215 m), and around – the green lands of Wadi-Warar, famous for its soft subtropical climate. Here is one of the main attractions of the northern part of the country – the fortress village Shikhar (163 km north of the sanana), located on the top of the mountain of 2160 meters high and therefore almost impregnable. For his long history, this place was the headquarters of the forces of resistance to the Turks during the XVI-XVII centuries, and the headquarters of the royalists during the civil war of the 60s. The village actually consists of two parts, each of which matures its own mountain peak. The deep gorge divides the village, and connects two parts of it only the old Sakhhar (Shikhar) bridge, built in the XVII century, and with an amazing engineering calculation. A simple shikhara architecture is harmoniously combined with stunning landscapes of the surroundings – the mountains lined up in the Sun and the chipping greenery valleys, which in a clean and dry local air are viewed on a lot of kilometers around.
And in the very north of the country, the Sahhar and Mar mountain massifs are the city Saad (SAIDDA), widely known for his madrasa (one of the most important educational centers of zeidism), the ring of old fortress walls, from which a beautiful panorama overlooks the whole neighborhood (the fortress itself served as a residence of Imam, and now the government agencies are located here), the old gate is reman , A big mosque, traditional market (a good place to purchase products from stone and silver) and located behind the city feature of the Zayidi cemetery, considered one of the most beautiful in the country.
172 km east of the capital, on the very border of the ancient volcanic massif, mountains and desert, lies the city of Marib.
180 km south of Saana lies the city of Rada – one of the most important centers of the South Province of El Beida.
In 256 km south-west of the capital, in the most southern spurs of the Western Mountain Ridge, is the old town of Taiz. Nearby also lies the city Dofar – The ancient capital of the Chemicalriarch kingdom (115 g. to N. NS. – 525 g. N. NS.), picturesque ancient shopping center IBB (Here you can see the remnants from the city walls and the aqueduct), Pass Sumor (height 2700 m), which opens a breathtaking panorama of Mountains Yarim and Damar, Old Chemicalrite port on the Red Sea – Moha, served in the XVII-XVIII centuries The largest export port of the country (it was from here to the markets of Europe monopoloous taken out coffee, so the locals believe that the name itself "Mokka" Gone from a distorted name of this city), a beautiful array of Mount Taakar (3094 m) and stepped Mountain Plateau cliffs in the Es-Sadda area.
The largest seasonal river in the Arabian Peninsula, Masila stretches through anhydrous desert for 160 km, forming in the western part (about 800 to the east of Sanah) the famous Vady Hadramout Valley ("Death came", Arab.) About 10 km wide with a depth of about 300 meters. This is one of the biggest river valleys of the peninsula in general – starting with a complex interweaving of small valleys in the Heinin area and Rakhtan, almost on the border of the desert volcanic plateau Ramlat-Es-Sabyatine, it runs a gentle arc between low mountains, choosing numerous lateral "inflows", Turning into the lower part into the real river Masila, flowing into the Arabian Sea near Sikhuta. This is one of the most fertile areas of Yemen, looking from the air as a green ribbon in the middle of the yellow-gray desert, and one of the most ancient people in this earth is traces of vintage irrigation systems found within Wadi, they suggest that developed agricultural culture. existed here at least in VIII in. to N. NS.
Sun – The biggest city in the valley is famous for the most beautiful mosques of Yemen, but the hall of the city is the Palace of Sultan (1931-1936.) – one of the most sophisticated structures of this kind in the country. Surrounded by greens of palm trees and yellowing cliffs. The high white colossus with beautiful blue windows today serves as a challenge for a good local history museum having an extensive collection of archaeological finds, subjects of decorative and applied classes and various items and things that have once belonged to local ruler (there is also a good souvenir shop. ).
Lying 30 km east, city Tarim is a direct competitor to Sayun by the number of mosques. This city, framed by rocks from the north and surrounded by palm groves from the south, is an important Sunni religious center. On a little over 25 thousand inhabitants, there are no not many 360 mosques and several madrasa, having all-earnings. Sheikh Ali Mosque is considered the most beautiful (its minaret is ascended by 43 m), and the highest – El-Mihdar (65 m – the highest minaret in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula and the real symbol of the city). Al-Akaf (El Aukaf) with its magnificent collection of vintage manuscripts (more than 14 thousand volumes) deserves attention. A characteristic feature of the city is a special contrast for its total building – along with the most picturesque old quarters, made in the simplicity and harmonious Arab manner, there are many modern buildings built in the most unimaginable styles. Residents of the city are considered one of the most prosperous in the country, so they often build mansions purely in "Novorusky style" – more and more profitable than and explained by the diversity of local architecture.
And in 36 km west Sayun is famous Shibam – "Manhattan desert" – The city of amazing clay skyscrapers, the most ancient on the planet. Moreover, these 5-8-storey buildings (about 500 of all) are built of unshakable clay bricks and stones without additional binding elements as skillfully, which, even despite their age (and many of them are dated IX-XVI centuries. N. NS.), still fulfill their direct functions without any care or repair. And the mound itself, on which these amazing structures are erected, is surrounded by an equally ancient wall as the nearby DOISLAKI quarters of the Kukana settlement, protected by a large fort. Shibam was already inhabited by the beginning of a new era and it is unknown, when these amazing buildings began to build here and for what, but one thing is clear – in the homes of this type, decorated with characteristic carved wooden doors and lattice windows with the same carved shutters, quite comfortable even at local heat. In 1982, the city was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "One of the oldest and most striking examples of urban planning based on the principle of construction by vertical".
The city of Aden lies in the south of the country, on the shore of the bay of the same name. The neighborhood of Aden is beautiful by themselves – this is an alternation of attractive shores with clean sand, a picturesque bay having a volcanic origin, large rocky seeds, the swampy shores of Sailan bay and small fishing villages in protected bays.
Socotra Archipelago (Socotra, Sabania, Abd El Kuri, Kal Faruun and Te-Broather Islands, or El-Miavan, Total Area of 3.66 thousand. kv. km) lies in the waters of the Arabian Sea at 380 km south of the coast of Yemen and 80 km east of Cape Guardafui (Somalia). Socotra – the largest of the islands of the group (3625 kV. km). His surface is formed by a powerful mountain range Hag’er (highest point – Mount Hadzhar, from 1505 to 1570 m in different data), surrounded by a strongly dissected limestone plateau with extensive karst areas and a narrow band of coastal plains. The climate here is a tropical monsoon with hot summer and warm winter. Precipitation drops to 250 mm per year, mainly in winter.
Lying in the center of the West Coast Yemen, Camaran Island is considered one of the most relaxed and picturesque places of the country.