Sights of Venezuela
Venezuela – one of the colorful countries of South America. Here, the snow peaks of the Andes and Amazon Jungle, beautiful Plateau Grand Saban and almost 3000 km of sandy shores, the largest Lake of South America – Maracaibo and the Third Length of the Planet River – Orinoco, the highest waterfall planet – Angel and the longest cable car in the world. And all this is surrounded by a luxurious and diverse flora, more than 3,000 species of exotic animals live under whose blood, including Jaguar, Ocelot, Tapir, Armadilla, the Murachie and the longest snake in the world – Anaconda.
Caracas and surroundings
The noisy capital of Venezuela, Multimillion Caracas, lies at an altitude of about 1000 m, in a picturesque valley on the northern coast of the country. Around Caracas also a lot of interesting places. First of all, this is the famous National Park Avila, spread over the sorts of the same name of the ridge just north of the city. Uninhabited emerald slopes of Avila tower over the city, like a huge green wave frozen directly in motion. And just 15 km north, behind the ridge, the luxurious Caribbean coast stretches – the center of beaches and resort areas. Here is the city of La Guaire – Sea Gates of Caracas. The south of the city extends the suburb of El-Atilo, famous for its colonial architecture, and 60 km west of Caracas, among the forests of Cordillera de la Costa, is one of the main attractions of the district – the mountain village of Colonia-goods, for almost two hundred years populated by the descendants of the German colonists. Here, most of the original German architecture has been preserved, and the inhabitants still use those products and recipes that are so popular on the tortine. There is even a small museum – Moseo de Historia-I-Artesania, in whose collection a lot of documents, clothing, tools, weapons and other relics of the foundation of the village. From Caracas you can smoothly reach the Lake Valencia, the country house Gomeza – Rancho Grande, as well as "Cradle of Venezuelan aviation" – Cities Maracay, with his house Opera, Triumphal Arch, Mausoleum Gomez (President of the country, 1908-1935.), beautiful gardens of the hotel Zhardin and Enri National Park Drink.
Mountain chain of the Andes crosses the whole western part of Venezuela, from the Columbia border to the coast of the Caribbean Sea. The ranges form three main branches – Sierra Nevada, Sierra de la Calaga and Sierra de Santo Domingo, towering above sea level by almost 5000 meters (the highest point of the country – the peak of Bolivar has a height of 5007 m, and the rest are only a little – Do not reach this mark). Green Mountains Sierra Nevada de Merida – the northernmost tip of the Andes system. Here, hundreds of kilometers stretch small villages, whose inhabitants still live in a traditional way of life, and the mountains themselves, whose foots are practically swimming in the warm waters of the sea, serve as a famous bait for all amateurs of outdoor activities. The colorful city of Merida, lying in the mountains of just 12 km from the highest peak of the country – Pico-Bolivar, is one of the most popular tourist centers of Venezuela, from where there is a lot of trail and routes of walking tourism, trekking and other types of outdoor activities. The most popular area for mountain trips – Sierra Nevada de Merida, widely known peaks of Bolivar and Humboldt, as well as the magnificent Sierra Nevada National Park. Los Nevados, Pico-El Aguyla ridges are equally popular (here leads from Merida, the highest road Venezuela) and Sierra de la Clature, widely known for its deserted landscapes.
Scenic and noisy student city – Merida. Not good theme parks of Los Alers and Venezuela de Anatey, a small historic city of Trujillo with his miniature churches, a charming town of haho, or Khali, (38 km from Merida) – one of the most beautiful cities in the region, Correra-de -Les-Gonzalez, "Garden city" Bokono with beautiful colonial quarters and an interesting local El Trapic Museum, the green town of La Mesa de Los Indios with his charming colonial buildings, crossing the entire region of Carretaker-TRANSANDIN, from the side of which the most exciting panoramas in the country opens, as well Tens and hundreds of mountain lakes, famous for their landscapes and fishing.
10 km from the town of Apados spread "Park Condor" Estasion-Biology-Juan-Manuel Paz, widely known for his research work on the protection of famous birds. Of the eight Condor, who are currently inhabit this region, two live in the park. Also nearby is WWW.Cida.VE National Astronomical Observatory is one of the most highly high observatories in the world (3600 m). Its four domed houses contain a huge Schmidt telescope, which is the fourth largest in the world. And the north of the Sierra Nevada National Park (Entrance $ 1) spread out, from the main gates of which a good trail to Laguna-Los Patos and Laguna-Negra – the best fishing lakes are stretched from the main gates of which in Laguna Mukubah.
Taby town Taiba, lying 10 km from Merida, is a starting point for visiting the La Mukuye National Park. Founded in 1689, TABABI is widely known as one of the largest coffee makers in the country and as a battlefield of a few battles of the federal war (mid-XIX century). 52 km northeast Merida lies the picturesque city of Mukuchis ("Place of water" At the local dialect), founded by the Spaniards in 1586. The city gave the name of the famous Venezuelan breed of dogs, so the monument to the traditional Plaza Bolivar is a monument to the dog (she belonged to Tinka – the conductor Bolivar, and died with the owner in the famous battle with the boyak).
Almost half of the country occupies a Gwyan plateau, which is an ancient crystalline array of a section of the Guiangian shield. Extensive areas "Tempui" (Dining Mountains), dismembered by numerous gorges and river valleys, cover the states of Amasams, Bolivar and Delta Amakuro, where approximately 1.5 million lives. residents. Most of them are concentrated in two cities – Ciudad Guayana and Ciudad Bolivar, while on the very highland only Indian tribes live "Yanaama", "Potmon", "Uarao" and "Piaroa". While some of these tribal groups have already fully joined modern life, most have quite limited contact with "Civilization" And therefore retained many ancient customs and traditions. Despite the explicit disadvantage of the population, Gwiank plateore is extremely important economically – in the depths of the region we are promoted a huge number of such natural resources as gold, iron ore, alumina and diamonds. Here we produce 76% of the electricity of Venezuela, which makes it even exporting it to neighboring countries. But the main one "resource" This part of the country is a unique nature that combines the tropical forests of Amazonia, exciting the spirit of the mountains, mighty rivers and waterfalls, as well as a magnificent animal and vegetable world.
The highest waterfall of the planet – Angel (Salto Angel) is located on one of the sleeves of the Carrao River (Churun, the influx of the Carony River), in the heart of the Canaim National Park. With a general height of the ledge of a huge mountain range, Ayiantepui, from which water is erupted, in 979 m, the greatest height of the free fall of water is 807 m, which is 20 times higher than Niagara and 15 times higher than Iguas. Officially, the waterfall was opened in 1935 by the American pilot James Crawford Angel (James Crawford Angel), who was conducted from the air reconnaissance of these places. However, the local Indians of the Peremon Waterfall, the time of the century was known as Kerepakupai-Meru (Kerepakupai-Meru – "falls into the deepest place"). They believed that he lived on the mountain "MARVA" (spirit in human court), who steals the soul of people, and for this reason the Indians never rose to the top "Tempui" and never told about the waterfall Europeans. Today, hundreds of excursions a year are arranged here, and due to the hard-to-reach space on the ground, preference is clearly given to air tours. Little planes fly right above the rocks and the abuses of Ayangtepui, over canyons "SIMAS", Over unique forest arrays, which in itself is already fascinating – in the area of almost 700 square meters. km The surface of the dining area usually envelops the fog, tumped only by ripped scaling formations resembling Stonehenge. On the ground, the waterfall can be reached only by means of a seventy-month-to-a-beam boat, and then on foot through the jungle (2-3 km, that under normal conditions is 10-15 km of walking through the mid-our forests). The difficulty lies also in the fact that the waterfall itself is the most fulfilled and beautiful in the rainy season, when aircraft hardly hampered by powerful cloudiness and fog, and the journey on the ground is the hardification of mountain oil. But here it is not rare the cardinal difference of the plant and animal world on the tops of the neighboring mountains, but "Tempui" About two thousand types of endemic inhabitants live.
Castle Canaima – Heart of the National Park and Angel Gate (about 50 km southeast of Canaima). Only 1,200 people live here and there is a tiny airfield serving tourists and locals. However, there are four beautiful waterfalls around the canaama – Salto Acha, Sutto-dock, Salto Gundrin and Sutto-Guadima, plus a picturesque lagoon de canaim with small sandy beaches. There are two more waterfalls nearby: Sutto-El Sapo (height 20 m), to which a trail carved, carved right in the rock by Peruvian hermit Thomas Bernamel, and a small, but very picturesque waterfall of Sato El Sapito. And just 3 km from Angel, the largest mountain of the region – Ayangtepui (2950 m) rushes (2950 m). From the canaima, you can reach the best ecological hotel of the country of arcane-lodge, to the Los Bobos thresholds, to Freito waterfalls (25 km below the river) and to the Nonoy-Tempui massif. Another landmark of the region is a hard-to-reach Salto-Apertoao waterfall with a height of 105 m. You can only get to it on Canoe from the Indian village of Iboribi, located 40 km from Canaima.
Roraimim Plateau ("big blue green mountain") extended along the border of Venezuela with Guyana and Brazil by 280 kV. KM. This is the southern part of the Guiangian Highlands, which includes huge areas engaged in fantastic meshanic "Tempui" and "SIMAS". Described in the novel Arthur Conan Doyle "Lost World", Plateau is considered Indians "center of land", For it is here, according to their mythology, the goddess Queen lives – the ancestor of people. The plateau received its name on behalf of the highest mountain Massif – Roraima (2772 m), however, in the vicinity of many and other famous mountains, like Serro-Autan (Sacred Mountain Indians "Piaroa", which believe that this raised by the caves array, about 1220 m height, is a tree trunk, through which the juices of the Earth), Serro Pintado, or "Painted mountain", (On the surface of the cliff, several dozen petroglyphs were found here, many of which have no analogues on the continent), Serra de la netersburg ("Mount Tumanov", up to 3014 m), Serro Sarisarma with huge canyons on his top (1670 m, "Sari-Sari" – This is how local Indians are clang by the jaws living on the top of the demon, which, allegedly, swallows people). Now the district of Roradima is becoming more and more popular with lovers of outdoor activities, but it should be borne in mind that a trip to the mountainous regions, according to local laws, must be accompanied by a guide and a porter from among the employees of the Canaim National Park. However, these expenses will surely pay off, since the mooring, indeed, one of the few corners of the planet, where there are landscapes, and the nature itself is as if they have come off the pages of fantastic novels.
The third on the length of the river in South America, the Orinoco stretches at 2150 km from its origins near the Brazilian border in the south of the country to a wide delta on the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Orinoco delta, sometimes also called "Delta Amakuro" (by the name of the very "young" The state of the country and a small river forming a part of the border with Guyana) is one of the largest in the world (area of about 25,000 square meters. km). The inclosable number of overgrown islands, which make up the delta, is the house of tribes "Uarao" ("People canoees"), living on the banks of the river in buildings on piles and earning a thread on wood, fishing and hunting. And the Orinoco and her sleeves are a separate landmark – each duct has its own color of water, its ecosystem and even its composition of water, why all the rivers are divided into "White" and "Black". Here live with colossal populations of birds (more than 350 species), more than 120 species of mammals, including monkeys, more than 1300 species of plants. But here is the most interesting here Ichthyofaun – the waters of countless sleeves of the Great River inhabit about 420 species of fish, among which are about 40 endemic, and about 70 species of reptiles, including the greatest Snake Planet – Anaconda.
The region is just beginning to be mastered by tourists, so its main attractions are considered the magnificent nature of the delta, original Indian tribes and the beautiful historic city of Ciudad-Bolivar (Angostura), who retained most of his colonial charm. It was here that the Spaniards planned to build the capital of the Orinocy – from here and numerous colonial mansions, it was here Simon Bolivar prepared the final stage of war of independence, as a result of which the city had even time to visit the country’s capital. And just below the river lie in San Felix (known for its colonial architecture) and Puerto Ordas (Industrial and Trade Center of the Region).
Venezuela has about 3000 km of coastline and almost a hundred islands, which makes it one of the most promising areas for a seafood. It was still understood by the Spaniards – the first resorts on the northern shore of the country began to appear together with conquistadors, and the most powerful impetus to their development gave the XX century, when even the inhabitants of the old world were coming here for impressions, the sun and rest. The climate here, including the Caribbean Islands, is much faster and dry than in the rest of the country, and the abundance of practically untouched shores attracted and attracts more tourists from all parts of the world. The coastal area of the north of Caracas, known as El Litoral, has greatly suffered from landslides and flooding in 1999, but the coastal areas are east and west of the central part of El Litolarl turned out to be practically not touched by elements and still offer many relatively wild shores well-known among independent travelers.
In the eastern part of the coast (402 km from the capital), in the throat of the extended sea bay of Kariako, lies the picturesque town of Kuman, challenging the title of the first settlement of Europeans in South America. To the east of Kumanov, the National Park of Mochima spread out, guarding one of the best coasts of the country, and only 140 km from the city are the most beautiful caves of the country – Cueva del Guacharo.
Isle de Margarita Island
Margarita Island is located 40 km from the northern coast of the country, forming a small archipelago (3 islands, about 70 reefs with Islands, about 70 reefs), which is an independent Nueva Esparta. The first European, who saw the island, was Christopher Columbus, whose ships came to the shore of Margarita on August 15, 1498, and the first resident of the old world, who pulled down on his land – Pedro Alonso Niño, who endorsed 38 kg of pearls from the Indians, which became the most expensive prey of Spaniards in XV B. Pearls, who always famous for this island, and caused his quick colonization. Since then, pearl banks have moved to the background, although the title "Pearl Venezuela" It remained, and the main article of income islandity became tourism – on Margarita, more than a hundred fashionable hotels, extended beaches (about 315 km) are considered one of the best in the country, and the lack of such a property of the continental part of the country of manifestations and political conflicts make rest here calm and serene.
Town Porlamar – The capital of Margarita and the famous duty-free zone. By itself, he does not represent anything special – the usual island city, what a lot in the Caribbean. The whole business and cultural life is spinning here in the area of Avenida Santiago Marino, where most of his duty-free shops are concentrated, and high-class hotels, as well as all the attractions, are beyond. So most of the guests of the island just pass the capital through, trying to make all the excursions from hotels. And here have something to see.
First of all, it is worth visiting the suburb of Costa Asul, which is the epicenter of the nightlife of the island; At the walls of the Forta La Quarant; In the town of Santa Ana, literally drowning in the greenery of gardens and parks; In Fort Espana not far from Santa Ana; in the village of Goncharov El Serkado; In Forta La Galen and the picturesque town of Juan-Griore; In the House-Museum of Santiago de Marinho (Hero of the National Liberation Movement of Venezuela) and Santa Espirito Valley. The National Park of the La Resting Bay, the city of Parapatar (one of the first European settlements in Venezuela, was founded in 1530 d) and its fortress Castillo de San Carlos-Borromeo (1684 g, now Historical Museum), secluded beach The town of Santa Fe, the capital of the state – the city of La Asuncion (founded in 1527) with his Museum of New Cadiz and the San Francisco Monastery (XVI B), the town of Rio Caribbean (there was almost a third of the cocoa beans of Venezuela) and numerous Thermal sources around it, Santa Rosa Fortress (1680 g), Modern Resort Center Puerto La Cruz with his cosmopolitan lifestyle.
Well, of course, the beaches, which here are a great set. These shores like fashionable Playa-El Agua are the most popular – three kilometers of continuous beaches and palm trees, eternally crowded Playa Colorad, Playa de-Uva – isolated private shore with colorful "Posadami" (old houses, refurbished under hotels and guest houses), Playa-Medina with snow-white sand and high palm trees, a very popular coast in surfingists, but not very suitable for beach holidays, the coast of Playa-Poui-Puy, as well as dozens of others, no less notable places.
Los Rockes Archipelago (4 relative to large islands and 342 small) lies in 168 km north of El Litator. The first mention of the archipelago refers to 1529, when the Spanish naval began to look for ways to the coast of Mexico to Cuba bypass. For a long time, only birds died on the islands and the pirates, who had chosen the archipelago to arrange their bases, then Dutch fishermen were moved here, and then with the same fishermen from Margarita, therefore, even after the entry of Los Rockes, the islands remained a quiet and secluded place, which is very promising sea resort. In 1972, a national park is created here, and a 24-kilometer system of coral reefs surrounding the central lagoon of the archipelago falls under the protection of the state. Many islands are completely closed to visit, and tourists are provided with a recreational zone, which includes the islands of Grand-Rock, Madrian, Francisi, Kayo-Pirate, Paints, Nordic and many small islets. Shores here are not so exciting as on Margarita, but here you can see how the island and reefs of the Caribbean look like a person’s arrival. All islands are surrounded by a coral reef, which is considered one of the best places in the country for diving and snorkeling, and the shores of Nordic have even a few sunken vessels in which the refuge of the famous Caribbean lobsters are found. Restaurants There are only for francisters and paints, and on Madrian you can see a few villas built by rich Caracasters before the announcement of the protected zone.
The northwestern part of the country is much less familiar to tourists than the Caribbean Islands. However, it is possible to find some of the best banks of the country, several colorful colonial cities and two beautiful National Park: Enri Pittier (about 150 km from Caracas) and Moom, each of which can boast magnificent landscapes and various nature.
In the north-west of the country, at the base of the narrow coherent medal, connecting Paraguian Paraguian Peninsula with the Continent, is the city of Coro.
Despite its importance in the economy of the country, and the second, after the capital, population, Maracaibo attracts some tourists. Founded in 1574, he retained a rather limited number of monuments of the colonial era, and those, for the most part, are located outside the city trait. The same name lake-lagoon Maracaybo, known as the main area of pirates in the XV-XVII centuries, is the largest freshwater reservoir of the continent (water mirror area of about 12,800 square meters. km), but oil pollution prevents its use for recreation. However, almost all routes through the region inevitably pass through the Rafael-Urdanet Bridge, which shouted through the lakes throat (total length of 8679 m – the longest bridge of South America), through the coastal pile village of Santa Rosa de Agua, which is famous for its fish restaurants, and Also past the Synamaic – places where Amerigo Vespucci called new land, open, Venezuela.
Lake surrounding lake provincial towns – the colonial city of Choroni with its narrow, curly streets and colorful buildings, Okumara de la Costa with his little waterfalls, and the town of Chuao, lying just a few kilometers from the coast of the same name, is considered one of the best manufacturers. Cocoa on the planet. Much here and beautiful beach zones – the picturesque coast of Playa-de Grande with numerous palm trees, greenish blue water, brown sand and lush mountains in the background, Playa-Kata, Playa Skuagua (popular place among surficists and local bohemians), Beautiful lagoon of La Sienaga with her beautiful underwater world and mangrove forest, as well as no less colorful shores of Playa Al-Dyario, Playa-de Chuao, Playa Sep and Playa Valle Seko. Old hotel Estasion, lying halfway between Maraca and Okumar, rebuilt into the Research Station of the Central University of Venezuela. Many trails are laid here, moving on which, you can see the incredible variety of birds and, if you are lucky, several types of monkeys-revunov.
Stretching on hundreds of kilometers of Lianos Plain, occupying almost a third of the country’s territory, are an extensive savannah, which is interrupted by isolated meadows and groves. Rio-Apure River divides the region to practically inhibition, separating Llano-Alto ("top" or "sublime" Plains) from Llano-Baho ("Milnovy" plains). This is the edge of the ranch and wind, the unique animal of the world and the noisy bird community, the land of Gaucho and slow rivers. During the rainy season (July-November), Lianos Plains are practically flooded with water, only a few specially raised highways remain more or less dry. In the dry season of the plains resemble savanna somewhere in the center of Africa – rapidly flowing herbs covered the ground with a solid yellow carpet, the Earth dries quickly, and the whole life is growing around the reservoirs and streams. Number and variety of wildlife species in Llańne Phenomenal – Anaconda, Caimans, River Dolphins, Jaguars, Puma, Capybaras, Monkeys, Murameni, Numerous Unlock and Huge number of birds are found here. However, the means of existence "Llano" – residents of the region provide pets. Like the cowboys of the American West, "Llano" have a reputation as excellent riders and cattle breeders – huge "atom" or "Hato" (Ranch, specializing in cattle breeding) often have flocks for several tens of thousands of heads.
Barkisimeto, One of the oldest settlements of Venezuela, is the fourth largest city in the country and, despite its location in the mountain valley Valle de Kybor, the capital of the plain Llanos and Lara state. Founded by Barkisimeto Don Juan De Wilgas in 1552, under the name of Nueva-Segovia de Varikuisimeto, and subsequently was submitted from place to place, only in 1563 finally "Settled" in its existing location. Sightseeing here are a bit – Obelisk, without any discovery, referred to as El Obelisco (built in commemoration of the 400th anniversary of the founding of the city) and the city council (1959-1969.) very unusual for Latin America architecture. However, Barkisimeto is famous for the whole country with its wines and the Religious Festival of Divine Pastor (January 14), during which the statue of the Virgin Mary, solemnly rushing on his hands from the town of Santa Rosa to the Barcisietho Cathedral, accompany more than 2 million. pilgrims.
South Barkisimeto, also at the foot of Sierra Nevada, lies the city Barinas. Looking at this small provincial town, it is difficult to imagine that in the colonial period it was the second largest and richer city of Venezuela (after Caracas). Founded in 1567, Barinas quickly became an important agricultural center of the country, whose market was superior to the capital at times, and at the beginning of the XVII century he, the only thing in the whole country, received a license for the cultivation of tobacco for the metropolis. To the very civil wars of the nineteenth century, the city flourished, delivering grain, sugar, cocoa and bananis in all regions. But battles destroyed most of the architectural monuments, and numerous crises strongly reduced income from agriculture. Therefore, in our days, Barinas is, rather, a quiet provincial town with long single-storey quarters, whose only decoration is only an unusual building of the Palacio del Gobierno, built by the Governor Chavez (Father of President Chavez).
And here "atom" ("ATOS", PN. number) in abundance scattered throughout Llanos, cause honored interest among many guests of the country. Oddly enough "ATOS" At all, it did not prevent the richness of wildlife in the endless plains, and even on the contrary – farms protection services have a deterrent and rampant poaching, so characteristic of many countries in the region. And after many farmers began to build guest houses and stall courtyards, Llanos became one of the best places in the country for ecotourism – from here organized numerous tours on trucks (!!) and jeeps, trips to canoe and roofs, as well as horse excursions, and guides usually speak "Llanos", like no one knowing the surroundings. Ranch accommodation means are usually robusts, but are easy to get here, and prices are quite high, especially in the dry season (usually start from $ 100 per day). But in return, visitors get the opportunity to familiarize themselves with one of the most unusual ecosystems of the planet, a little changed even after the arrival of a person here. Ato-Barbara or La Trinidad de Arauca (Area 36 000 hectares, 21 guest house), Atomo El Sedrall are considered the best ranch in this region (46,000 hectares (is widely known as its pool – the only one in the establishments of this kind as well wildlife), atom el-frio (area of 80,000 hectares, 10 guest houses) with its international biological station, as well as the Birds-famous ATO-Pinero bird population (80,000 hectare area, 11 guest houses, everything around Rancho lives 340 varieties birds).
The second largest state of Venezuela (after the north north of Bolivar), the Amasonse is the least populated area of the country – half of his 120,000 inhabitants inhabit the capital of the state – the city of Puerto Ayacucho, lying on the very West, on the eastern shore of Orinoco. The northern part of this area smoothly goes to Grand Saban ("Great plains") Lyanosa, and the center and east are already true, rather, to the spurs of the Guiangian Highlands, reulted by wet equatorial forests and famous "Tempui". Almost completely covered with thick and almost impassable forests, the amasonis has on its territory more than a hundred only large rivers, not counting the inconspicuous number of robusts, streams and ducts, being the place of birth of the Orinoco itself.
Here, according to approximate estimates, more than 8,000 only known species of plants grows, and work on the detection of new species is carried out constantly, every year increasing the number of famous science of representatives of flora by 4-5 species. Several ancient tribal groups of continent live here "Piaroa", "Aravaka", "Yequana", "Potmon" and "Janomami", Moreover, unlike its tribesmen in the north, the inhabitants of the AMASOX are in no hurry to part with their traditions, still leading a semi-courtyard lifestyle based on hunting and collecting.
The difficulty of these amazing places is very limited to the possibility of visiting them. The only starting point for all tours is the state capital – the city of Puerto-Ayakucho (founded in 1924 as a port for shipment of wood), which can only boast the Ethnological Museum of Amasonse, the market of handicraft products in front of him and Avenida Rio-Negro, also transformed into one Big shopping row. And the rocky hills (Serro-Perico, Serro-El Samuro and Serro-Pintado) will come around the city, many of which were found petroglyphs dated by the V-III millennia to. NS.