Sights of Spitsberena
Presumably Svalbard (literally – "Cold Kray") Wiking – Icelandic saga dates this event 1194, although modern researchers tend to believe that Svalbard was then called Jan Mayen or even the east coast of Greenland. At about the same time, the water around the archipelago was actively mastered by our pomas, which this land was known as Grummith, or, later, like the Holy our Islands. In the middle of the XVI century on the archipelago there were already settlements of Pomorov, also often these waters visited and Norwegians. At the same time, the opening of the archipelago is attributed to the Dutch of Willoma Barenta, who in 1596, during his expedition to search for the Northern Way to Asia, opened the Island of Bear. In the XVII-XVIII centuries, the archipelago was used by different countries as the whaling base base, while whales in the region were almost completely exterminated (by the way, Norway, along with Iceland and Japan, continues the limited hunt for whales, despite the moratorium of the International Commission on Regulation whaling fishery). Also Spitsbergen attracted the attention of the northern countries as a unique coal pool, which allowed the extraction of coal and directly on the spot to load it into fishery bunkers.
In 1920, the United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden signed the Paris Treaty on Spitsbergen, in 1935 the USSR joined him. All countries participating in the contract have the right to freely exercise economic activities here, but today only Norwegian and our settlements continue to work here, as well as a number of international scientific stations.
The tourist attraction of Spitsberegin is entirely determined by his unique nature. These in all parameters of the non-smart places attract people with harsh beauty of almost untouched Arctic nature, the abundance of living beings (relative, of course, but only white bears are held here from 3 to 6 thousand individuals), "wild" According to modern standards, living conditions with almost complete division from civilization, as well as unique opportunities for extreme types of recreation and sports. The infinite polar day gives an unlimited amount of time for the most different activities, so there are intensively developing such types of outdoor activities like trekking, ice-clagging, hikes to remote mountain areas, exits for glaciers, watching the flora and fauna archipelago, dog sledding trips, Deer or snowmobile. There are many unique sites for snowboarding and skis.
The capital of the Archipelago – Longyearbyen (Longyirbüen, Longyearbyen) is located in an extensive valley on the shore of the Bay of Is Fjord (Ice Fjord, Isfjord), the long language of the west Island of West Svalbard in the western coast. The city was founded in 1906 by the American entrepreneur John Longyir, who organized coal mining in this place. Nowadays, this is a real polar city, the location of local authorities and the administrative center of Norwegian settlements on the archipelago. There are only about 1,200 people living here, most of them – young people are not older than 35 years old (and a lot of children), but various offices, restaurants and shops – a huge amount for such a small settlement.
The whole city, in fact, focused around the port, is near the church, the residence of Sisselman (governor of the island), tourist information center, school, hospital, bank, post office, supermarkets, numerous hotels and guesthouses (they are called them "Baraca"), restaurants, bars, sports center and residential buildings. The main element forms the appearance of the city is a whole network of communications (pipes, cable and t. D.), blocked by bridges and ramps for travel transport (most often in this role here are jeeps and snowmobiles). To smooth some unsighteousness of this picture, at home (oddly enough – mostly wooden) are painted in bright colors and decorate the illumination – not an extra precautions at all, taking into account the first year of the polar night. And as a result, the whole town looks very picturesque and even smart, especially against the background of deep lazories of the sea and heaven and white cover of snow and ice.
The main attractions of the city are the Svalbard Museum (WWW.svalbardmuseum.NO) With a fairly large exposition on the history of the archipelago’s development (there are small branches in Barentsburg and Nulesundne), Svalbard Gallery (except for the works of local masters, there is a feature center and a unique collection of books and cards), Aina Art Workshop (WWW.Ainogrib.COM), the center of the funicular (the former station of the coal cable car, in which a small exhibition center is now located) and, of course, the Church of Svalbard-Kick, which, in addition to its direct functions, also performs the role of a peculiar cafe (openly several times a week in the evenings), Concert and Lacon, as well as Mini Museum.
One of the northernmost settlements of a person in the world, Longyir has a large research base, here even has its university – the northernmost in the world, as well as a whole network of scientific stations scattered throughout the surroundings. And in the case of natural cataclysms in the city, an international bank of seeds, which is called here "Ship’s repository day". Here, at a depth of 300 meters, in the old abandoned mine on the outskirts of the city, more than two million seeds of all plants of the Earth will be kept.
The second largest settlement on the Spitsbergen Archipelago and the Arcadegen of Russia, Barentsburg lies on the bank of Grun Fjord, 55 km from Longira. In the days of the Cold War, Barentsburg, like many other settlements on the archipelago, was an important strategic point, but currently experiencing not better times. The basis of the local economy – coal mining brings less revenues, so at present there is no more than 850 inhabitants, mostly our and Ukrainian miners living in this truly unique city. The city looks like a striking contrast to pure and neat Longyar – black snow, smoke dozens of pipes and forever burning coal dumps and gray squat buildings in Soviet style. The attractions of the Barentsburg include a small wooden chapel (1996.), Culture house, sports complex with a real swimming pool, museum "Pomor" (Login – 35 NOK), Shop Souvenirs "polar Star" (The range of its goods is clearly taken from the Moscow Arbat) and the statue of Lenin.
A peculiar guidelines serves as a traditional sculptural composition with a star and a slogan "Mire – Mir!", Located on the slope of the hills over the city (except for ideological background, this monument today has a purely practical role – the star located on his painshche serves an excellent end indicator of the polar night). Therefore, foreigners here go to the Cold War Reserve, and the ours – or work (although it is unprofitable lately), or transit to numerous scientific stations (the tourist infrastructure of the Barentsburg is practically not developed). Here, do not even accept cash of cash our money, and you can pay with either Norwegian crowns or special plastic cards of local banks.
Same "Socialism Reserve" represents another our mining settlement – Pyramid. In early 1998, coal mining was discontinued here, and people left this town. However, it’s amazing that local coal is better than the Barentsburg (less sulfur content), and the village itself is built very thoroughly, so perfectly preserved to the present day, as the northernmost monument to Lenin. Many of the buildings are quite suitable for housing and work – hostels, hospital, hotel, warehouses and offices – are intact, with whole glasses and saved inner decoration.
Many interesting places can be found along the western coast of Spitsberena: a picturesque cross fjord with his old village EBELOTFBUKTA, Iso-fjord with his rock alcohronet (height of about 400 m), snow-white glaciers Magdalen Fjord, bird bazaars on the cliffs at the glacier "the 14 th of July", Old mining town, and now – Scientific Station Nu-Olesund (the most northern settlement in the world) with a well-preserved mast for airships (the aircraft moored to it "Norway" and "Italy" Before their flights to the North Pole), Ruins of the Danish settlement of Mongdle Train on the island of Amsterdam, Raud Fjord and Island Muffen with fokers of cattle and walrus, abandoned marble quarry on the island of Blomstrand, Danskoya Island and village Virgohamna, From where many expeditions went to the North Pole, the Bird Island of Angei, the Strait of Hinlopen and the picturesque rocks of Alkefiellet.
Tours to the shores of the island of Northeastern land with its rich life Coven Palander, to the island of FIPS (only 600 km from the North Pole), on the Irere-Norseland Island with his village of Dutch Kitoboev XVII century and the observation center of Utkin, from which the majestic opens Panorama, as well as numerous islands of the land of Prince Karl.