Shelter for lovers in the mountains
Mexican Mario made me an offer from which it was difficult to refuse. As free imagination to legend "Lane kisses", Gucanuato’s existentive in Guanajuato, he suggested that I tell me about 12 ways of committing an indicated act in technically difficult conditions of narrow medieval butt, steep stairs and balconies. After some reflection, I still rejected the deal. Erudite Mario was only six years old, and listen to a lecture on kisses from such young deaths seemed to me with anti-ducual.
However, I pretty ran ahead. If we talk about guanahuato, then from the very beginning. In the famous Mexican city, I drove along the road, which is winding serpentine on the picturesque hills, crouched laurels and lemon trees. In the language of the ancient inhabitants, the name of the valley and grew up in her town means: "Shelter frogs in the mountains". Honestly, about frogs in those places forgot. Now the old town is famous for monuments of medieval architecture and history surrounded by a halo of romantic legends.
Narrow, like paths in the forest, catching the streets from the hillock on the hillock. To get to them, I had to hurry: the main automotive entrances are removed under the ground. In the pipe stubborn and occurred once through the center of Guanajuato River. The older channel was turned into a multi-kilometer underground street.
Laying more than 400 years ago, the first stone in the foundation of the city, Spanish conquistadors, fascinated by the natural beauty of this region and the wealth of his subsoil, intended, as evidenced by the chronicles, challenge the pride of Spain – Toledo. At the conquered lands of the Indian Empire of Chichimekov, they decided to build a city, which is even more magnificence and scope. I can confirm that this ambitious idea has greatly succeeded. It is unlikely that it makes sense to argue, which of the cities is more. One undoubtedly: Guanajuato produces a strong impression.
It witnessed and visited the Queen of Spain Sofia several years ago, which guanahuato immediately caused Association with the Toledo Museum. And the famous German geographer and researcher Alexander Humboldt, published at the beginning of the XIX century 30-Tomny work "Journey to the equinal areas of the new light", called guanahuato "City of lovers". The term, perhaps, is not too scientific, but I really met there surprisingly many couples in love with almost all nationalities. Particularly comfortable, they feel in the evenings, conveniently setting up under the canopies of numerous cafes and restaurants.
It seems that the local air itself is impregnated by the romance of past centuries. This feeling is even more intensified from the fact that in the city you will not meet modern buildings. When Guanajuato was announced a few years ago by the cultural property of mankind, the local authorities banned the construction of houses that do not fit into the historical architectural environment. Even at all intersections, there are no familiar traffic lights and so bored with all of us annoying billboards.
Whether it is necessary to be surprised that it was here, in one of the 1200 old butt, a legend was born about the already mentioned "Lane kisses"? Like many other tourists, I told her for a reasonable fee very busy "Duet excursions" – Ancient elder and six-year-old Star Mario.
It is curious that the same story in their lips sounded differently. The old man told her slowly, savor every detail, and was opened for dialogue. Little accelerat made it in one run in the rhythm of the beat of the drummer. Looks like Mario most disturbed, no matter how an inquisitive listener did not hit him with a question or a request to clarify one or another episode. Kid drove his version by heart and tried to pronounce her in one breath, without stopping.
Listen to the tragic history of Love Anna and Carlos in Mario Interpretation.
So, in two houses located against each other – classic "Visati" – Lived the daughter of the wealthy Spaniard Ana and Mexican Don Carlos, a good, but poor man who worked on one of the local gold-silver mines. Falling in love with each other, young people managed to kiss himself often, without leaving their own home. To do this, they were enough to sweep away from the railing of the balconies hanging over the alley, which were divided only 68 centimeters. I do not undertake to give an expert assessment of the reliability of the whole legend, but for the accuracy of the named numbers I swear – checked.
Anna’s father, somehow found young lovers for the lesson described above, came to rabies. The brewing union was for him an example of a typical Mesallians, and he warned the daughter that in case of repeating seen it sends her harsh car. However, Ana, the only and spoiled daughter did not give due importance to his words. The consequences were terrible. Once, the father came out in an unknown hour. Father again found the youngsters with the mouths, spilled in a kiss over the alley. In essence, it was an air kiss in the exact sense of the word – a kiss over the abyss! But the Father, who has lost his mind from the wrath, won the dagger in the back of the daughter who was bold through the daughter’s railing. Falling, she stretched his hand in his lover, who had time to capture the kiss for the last time.
This version of the legend contradicts the book option, according to which Ana and Carlos, exchanged by gentlemen through the railing of the balconies, managed not only to love each other, but also to be secretly married. But you never know how to accumulate for 200 years who have passed since the day of the described tragedy! Whatever it was, the old legend gave a lane to the name, preserved to the present day, and made it one of the most popular and visited in Mexico.
To a considerable extent, this is due to the fact that melodramatic "love story", which there is so much in the centers of tourist pilgrimage, turned out the literary framework and became part of a kind of show, if you want, – attraction. Visitors are strongly recommended to kiss with their companion on the third step of a steep staircase, which leads to the rapidly gaining alley. Apparently, just for this case, an advisory set of 12 varieties of a kiss, who tried to beat me not by the years enlightened Mexican mario tags.
Your companion can be a wife, a friend, a mistress, a friend’s wife or just familiar – no one is interested. If the man does not appear in "Pereulok kisses" One, at his disposal two options. Either not kissing at all that against the background of mass demonstrations of tenderness looks quite stupid and develops a complex of inferiority, or try to get – again for a moderate fee – "Lady heart" hire. There is also such a service service with which local beauties will be cooperating. Of course, a one-time partner for a kiss can be provided with a warehouse lady.
Commercial project efficiency significantly increases information circulating in Lane: do not kiss the third steps – 7 years old do not see happiness, but you kiss – ahead, at least 15 years of happy life. Make a choice.
But no longer traveling on the famous alley under the rustling of kisses, a lot of other no less interesting places in Guanauato. His former luxury an ancient city must be rich in silver fields, and the current attractiveness – an untreated medieval flavor. They are literally impregnated with winding streets and small areas, drowning in the greenery of the eternal Lavi. Urban bridges were paved by a cobblestone in times of Spanish conquists. In addition, stone sidewalks include two pedestrians, neat two-, three-story houses decorated with carved balconies. Special comfort them give traditional patio – courtyards with fountains in the midst, flowers and greens.
But not all in the colonial past Guanaanuato was so idyllic. Looking at the massive walls of the ancient fortress of Alonundig, it was hard for me to forget that they were exhibited here at one time, the heads of the first fighters for independence were exhibited. Strong nerves need to have and in order to get acquainted with an incredible collection of dried mummies in the municipal pantheon.
Museum-benefit city continues to live and develop, entered along with the world in the XXI century. Old man here organically echoes modernity. At the University of Guanajuato, a common courtyard with the Cathedral of La Companiy. And Juarez Theater is located next to the Cathedral of San Diego built in 1620. Everyone lives and worries in its rhythm and genre. Merry single-acting plays are often put in the harsh realities of the Epoch of the Inquisition. Artists are convinced that this gives their work additional expressiveness – the effect that could be envied the most gifted director.
Sometimes such a battle of epoch makes itself felt in the biography of the most famous buildings. On the evening of September 15, 1810 in the small village of Dolores, that in the polustener of kilometers from Guanajuato, the priest of Miguel Idalgo and Castilla, the Bell’s strike announced the beginning of the armed struggle for the independence of the country. Five days later, the patriots rushed around him gave a decisive battle to colonizers. The Spaniards fell in the fortress the Spaniards were headed by the rebels.
Sacred for Mexicans relics of this heroic time are now stored in the halls of the historical museum, open in the former fortress, the malt of colonizers. A reminder that the path to independence was bloody and thorny, serve the metal cells hanging at the corners, in which conquistadors have exhibited the head of the head of executed leaders of the uprising on the universal. The most weathered in salt.
Among the cathedrals, which are famous for Guanajuato, the most beautiful – La Valenskian, located in close proximity to the city, on a high hill. This is one of the pearls of Mexican Baroque. The facade of the cathedral, fully laid out of the pink stone, is considered to be the highest achievement of style "ChurrieceSko". The construction of the temple, which lasted almost half a century, financed a certain aristocrat, who was a huge fortune due to the silver mine. The deposit of this noble metal in La Valencian, open in the XVI century, was the richest in all Mexico. By the way, the historical mine has recently gained a second breath – again entered into operation.
In the glorious chronicle of Guanajuato made his contribution and Diego Rivera. One of the most visited places in the city is an inconspicuous three-storey house on Schitos Street, 47, where on December 8, 1886 there was a future artistic genius, an unsurpassed master of monumental painting. Here were the first years of his life, here he began to draw Diego from three years. Now the father’s house of the artist became a museum.
In one of the halls I came across two expressive portraits. The first depicts Diego in a tightly fastened tuber, with thickper black hair and sad eyes. This canvas wrote in Paris in 1905 Angelina Belov. Near her self portrait – a woman in a white apron with a strict look and smooth hair. On a beautiful hand – Wedding Ring.
In 1911, in Paris, Diego River married Angelina White, an amazing our artist who was born on June 23, 1879 in St. Petersburg, and died in Mexico on December 30, 1969. In various Mexican museums, her work is kept. In 1916, Angelina gave birth to a son, who was named after Father Diego. However, destiny only 14 months of life. Mother who lived 90 years old could not pass longevity genes. The life of River, who was for seven years younger wife, cut off at 71.
In Guanajuato, fate was not favorable to the river, nor to his parents. Good luck smiled by the artist only in Veracreus. This is reminded by the picture stored in the house-museum "Forge" (1908). One of his early works was dedicated to how the inscription in the picture says, "Senoron Don Teodore Dees, Governor State Veracruz, with my greatest appreciation". Apparently, it was for what to thank.
The director of the House-Museum of Aurora de Olivas told me that Rivera, already becoming a famous artist, has reacted painfully for a long time when he was asked if he wanted to go to Guanauato? The master answered: "I am a citizen of the world". But there was another background. At one time, the father of Diego, adhered to liberal views, was forced to leave the native city in political reasons. So a six-year-old boy with his family was in Mexico City. Later gifted young man recommended continuing education in Europe, but Gunanovato Governor, who was supposed to give him a scholarship as a state native, refused. Then the Governor of Veracrus Theodoro Dees, who looked at the paintings of the Diego to the print of bright dating, he installed a small scholarship for him.
History has kept the words they uttered by Theodore Deesa. They were things. The governor said that he would allocate a scholarship in the name of glory, which the artist in the future should bring Mexico, and asked for a young man to send him from time to time samples of his work to know how his business in Europe adds. That’s such a flair and state concern about the fate of art to our governors, and all our political and business elites, in no way wishing to develop the richest traditions of the domestic patronage. Maybe abroad teach them.
By the way, painting "Forge", Where else is felt the influence of Velasquez, just one of those works that Diego River sent his patron to the distant Veracruz from Madrid. And just during your stay in Paris, a young artist created over 350 drawings and dozens of large paintings, many of which are now in the House-Museum in Guanajuato.
After returning from Europe, Rivera still could not resist and drove in Guanajuato, but not in order to appear in front of countrymen, recognized in Paris. Diego had other interests. For hours, Nutrole did on silver sketch mines for its future monumental frescoes about labor and the struggle of the people. Those decorated the building of the Ministry of Folk Enlightenment. Later, Rivera will say that in this city, with its contrast paints, you can fall in love with color and line.
After the Second World War, when the Mexican Master was in the Zenith of Glory, he was invited to lecture at the University of Guanajuato. Professor Angel Gomez told me that the speeches of River became a big event. Rivera, who was able to speak brightly and excitingly, built lectures as a sincere conversation with countrymen on art, about his work.
Diego Rivera said one day: "Tons ink spent in my favor or against me. But here for the first time is the one who I actually: I am from Guanauato". These words are now knocked out on the wall of the House Museum River.
Over a quarter century ago Passionate fan of creativity of the great Spaniard Miguel de Servantes Professor of the University of Guanajuato Enrique Ruelas marked the beginning of the tradition to celebrate the author "Don Quixote" artworks inspired by his work. So an old city, a unique monument of colonial architecture in the open air became the cradle of the festival "Servantino", Which eventually gained international recognition and turned into one of the most vivid cultural events in Latin America.
Over the course of three festival weeks, the city becomes one huge arena. Masters of different generations, moving out of many countries of the world, please the residents and guests of Guanajuato by songs, dances and theatrical ideas representing all genres, styles and directions of stage art.
Holiday in Guanajuato harmoniously combines the traditions of gray old antiquity and artistic modern. According to the current practice, many participants in the festival rehearsed right in front of passersby. Music these days sounds everywhere, including. underground, creating unique acoustic effects. Some consider it a branded sign "Servantino", His business card.
The International Festival held by the past October in Guanajuato has already found a new motto for the 29th time – "For new times". This is not only a focus on the future, the reflection of the global nature of modern world culture, but also the evidence of democratic transformations in Mexico. In the past festival, over 2500 artists from 44 countries of the world took part – the scale that cannot but impress. But there is a reason for both unshakable reflections, in any case, for us. Which can also be considered a tradition.
General Director of the Osorio Fonsek festival in conversation with me, I regret that in the last two years for financial reasons, our teams do not participate in this prestigious forum. In accordance with the Cooperation Program in the field of culture, education and sports between the governments of Mexico and the our Federation, signed in August 2000, the our side offered to send to the festival "Servantino" The ensemble of the Kuban Cossacks and the ballet group Fuete "Antigone". There were also negotiations on the speech in Guanajuato our "Girishedheyev".
But in the end, Russia at the festival in Mexico was brilliantly absent, and the honor of representing the entire post-Soviet space fell out Lithuania, which, by the way, does not recognize the most geopolitical concept, seeing the Rudiment of the Imperial Epoch. So there is an obvious step back. It is worth remembering that in previous years at the festival "Servantino" A small theater performed, the central theater of dolls exemplary, dance ensembles "Tyumen Zori", "Gzhel" and Evgeny Yevtushenko himself.
"We hope, – said I did not lose optimism Osorio Fonsek – that in the near future the festival in Guanajuato will again receive our cultural and art figures". It is good to.
The traditional international colloquiums are dedicated to the memory of Cervantes, which are held in Guanauato since 1987. Rector of the City University of Cucmian Okhed Rodriguez told me that this forum attracts increasing attention of the most authoritative servantist researchers from many countries of the world. The last meeting was devoted to the study of the literary Spanish at the turn of the new millennium. It was timed to the new exposure in the museum "Don Quixote", In which the sculptural and picturesque works of the Spaniards Federico Silva, Leonardo Niorman and Sebastian.
A significant part of the city’s population is directly or indirectly related to the tourism industry. Among foreign guests growing interest are artistic crafts of ceramist masters, whose bright, cheerful products can be found on every corner. Multiweight them is a good addition to the main colors of Guanajuato: whiteness of houses and deep blue south sky. Plates with the name of streets, churches and cathedrals, public and cultural centers are also made of multicolored ceramics. Like many sidewalks. In the numerous souvenir shops, the eye will not literally unlock from ceramic cups, VAZ, female jewelry, absorbed all the colors of the rainbow.
In one of these shops, which is located on the central street, bearing the name of the patriarch of the Mexican nation Benito Juarez, I met a master Khaima Vargas. His wife Laura serves buyers, and the artist himself at this time in a small extension paints ceramic dishes.
"The traditions of Guanajuato and many other Mexican areas in the manufacture and painting of ceramic products go to the depths of the centuries, in the culture of the ancient Mexican Indians", – Says Heima, continuing to apply a thin tassel in the blue paint of exotic birds on a snow-white vase. He is especially like the art of Maya Indians, who served ceramics for household, ceremonial and decorative purposes. Ancient Masters, explained to me Khaima, used special matrices or gave products with shape with strips and balls from clay, exposing them later to the sun for drying. This technology is used in Guanuaato until now.
According to the artist, archaeologists and are now found in the habitats of the Indians a variety of ceramic products: figures, urns, curls, vessels. Various styles of the ancient masters researchers are classified under the following periods: the report, which is characterized by rudimentary objects from red and gray clay; Early classic when the forms have become more diverse and different color was used in the decoration of figures. Ceramics of the mid-classic period had multicolor geometric patterns on a yellow or terracotta background. The flourishing fell on the late classic period when the shapes began to be depicted on white, yellow and red background. Here are already clearly attacked the signs of realistic art. Finally, in the postclassical period, Yucatan Peninsula became the center of pottery. However, despite the emergence of new technologies, the glitter of the previous period to exceed and failed.
In Guanajuato, how I was convinced, much was done in order to preserve the values of the past, do not allow to go into the oblivion of his fragile beauty. An example of this can serve as a love restoration of charming Calhand de Beso – so in Spanish is called more than once mentioned "Pereulok kisses".
Revived famous "Estudianinas" – Youth night carnavals. They were popular in the period of Spanish dominion, but almost disappeared from the cultural horizon of Latin America. Every Friday and Saturday, after 9 pm, numerous ensembles and groups with guitars, tambourines, mandolines are going to the Square in front of the Juares Theater. Musicians who needed in the outfits of the Spanish Hidalgo, proudly marching around the city, performing the melodies of the old days.
It was so great that one day, overcoming doubts, I joined them. That evening sang all guanahuato, so I just had no choice. As Mayakovsky said, by the way, very loved by Mexico and a friend from Diego River, "And the one who sings not with us today against us". And I decisively "per".