Samarkand. Sights of Uzbekistan
Samarkand – amazing, multiple, extraordinary. For a long-to-year years of its existence, he changed the name many times, here the generations were replaced by each other numerous dynasties of the rulers, it was built, they were destroyed, burned, then rebuilt again and t.D. In general, the city experienced everything that was destined to survive the motley and famous capital of the East, the city of which Amir Timur admired and where he wrote his descendants, Ulugbek. This stunning of his beauty, mystery and a kind of combination of peace and eastern temperament the city is able to leave the visitor only the most pleasant and unforgettable memories, full of paints and feelings of admiration for the ancient Central Asian architects, who managed to create such a magnificent, with nothing comparable on beauty and grace center of the world.
For a long time, Samarkand was the capital of the huge empire of Tamerlan. This is one of the oldest cities in the world, by age, it can be put in one row with such world pearls, like Rome, Athens, Babylon. He has long been attracted to himself the eyes of famous politicians, serious business people and desperate travelers. Special heyday and the greatness of the city reached during the rule of the Great Amir Timur. Being a native of Shahrisabz, the commander turned Samarkand to the main city of his endless empire. The capital occupied a profitable geographical location, being an important shopping center at the crossroads of the Great Silk Road Roads.
In Samarkand, a huge number of samples of medieval architecture are preserved, striking the perfection of the shapes and a rich palette of the most bright colors.
Initially, Samarkand held a part of the Afrosiab Hill, towering north of the modern city. To X B. Numerous suburbs located south of the hill were already built up to bazaars, caravan sheds, baths and mosques. This part of the city had a good irrigation system and drowned in greenery. On the contrary, the supply of Afrosiab water demanded a complex device of laying lead pipe on the aqueduct. When taking Samarkand Mongols, this ancient water supply was destroyed, and a life on Afrosyab has ceased. Now it is a lifeless hill that hides the treasure of the artistic culture of the past. Mongol invasion of boldly the preceding time buildings. It took the century to overcome its consequences. Only in 1334-1335. In Afrosia, the construction of necropolis began "Shahi-Zinda", Was rebuilt by Mausoleum Kusam Ibn-Abbas. The interior of the mausoleum was decorated with irrigation terracotta of turquoise color, in the opening between Ziarat-Hanoi (worship room) and GUR-Hanoi (room with tombstones) installed a wooden grill of a typical work, an excellent majolica tombstone was delivered by Timur.
The greatest flourishing construction of necropolis reached in the last quarter of the XIV., When they started to build mausoleums for members of the Timur family, military leaders and nobles. Some buildings ensemble "Shahi-Zinda" belong to the first half of the XV in., Time Ulugbeka. Their number includes a restrained decorated portal (1434-1435.) At the foot of the Afrosyab Hill and standing above on the slope of a Mausoleum hill with two highly raised turquoise domes, as expected, over the grave of Astronomom Kaza-Rui, Teachers Ulugbek.
Open space before mausoleum "Kaza-Zade-Rumi" Replaced by a narrow pass, built on two sides by Timur’s time by Mausoleums: "Emir-Zade", "Tugula Tekin", "Shadi Mul-Aka" ("Tourkan Aka") and "Shirin-bika-aka". The main facades of these small union buildings are composed in the form of a portal, which focused on himself a rich colorful decor. They differ from them only an octaigrated mausoleum with open parties, decorated with mosaic of glazed bricks, probably initially (first half of the XV in.) Blurred in a dome on a high cylindrical drum.
Better than others has been preserved by Mausoleum Shadi-Maker (1372 g.) and her mother, sisters of Timur – Tourkan-aka. Truly inexhaustible manifold of artistic means in the art of ceramic facing of Shahi-3ind! Terracotta with carved vegetable, geometric and epigraphic ornament, covered with colored icing, and Maitolian make up the facing of most mausoleums of this complex.
Long passage between mausoleums is interrupted by a chartak separating a charming shaded courtyard, closed by a mausoleum "Togo Ak" (NAK. XV B.) and Mausoleums of Dotimurovsky Time – "Khoja Ahmada" and nameless 1360-1361., as if competing beauty cladding. Door with date 1404-1405., decorated with carvings and originally inlaid ivory, leads from the courtyard to the XV mosque in. and to the earliest and chief mausoleum Kusam Ibn Abbas.
Colored glazed facing "Shahi-Zinda" Unique. But not only they testify to the talency of the creators of the ensemble. Replacing each other during the century, who worked on various buildings, the builders were able to combine buildings into a single architectural ensemble.
At the end of the XIV in. Samarkand became the capital of the huge empire of Timur, the subject of his special concerns. The city of Samarkand rewound and built up with numerous buildings. The ambitious ruler sought the construction of large monumental buildings to approve the idea of his power. In 1399., Returning out of the campaign to India with huge crap wealth, Timur began building a Friday mosque.
With extraordinary hasty, for five years (1399-1404.), Mosque was erected "Bibi-Hano", How began to call it subsequently. The complex of buildings of the mosque combined with a large courtyard, fenced walls. The main entrance marked with a high portal with two towers was located in the east side of the yard, and in Western – the building of the main mosque. Its majestic portal flanked by eight-grown towers is opened by a vaulted niche in which the entrance to the building is located. In the middle of the other sides of the courtyard stood small mosques. All these facilities (the total area of 167 x 109 m) were associated with the courtyards passing around the perimeter. Their dome floors were supported by numerous marble columns and columns. In the corners of the courtyard walls stood minarets. The walls of the complex buildings are lined with grinding bricks, against the background of which the glazed blue brick laid great geometric patterns. Such monumental ornamentation is characteristic of large buildings of Timur. In the decoration of the portal of the mosque, as opposed to the decor of the walls, a carved stone, marble and majolica are used. Lined Turquoise Brick Dome of the Main Mosque dominated the city. This is about him flattering historian Timur said that he would be the only one if the sky was not repetition.
The poor quality of construction work led to the rapid destruction of the mosque structures. The gallery has not been preserved, both portals, dome, small mosques have been significantly injured.
One of the last buildings of Timur in Samarkand was "Mausoleum Gur-Emir" (1403-1404.), designed for his beloved grandson of Mohammed-Sultan, but served as the tomb and for himself, his sons and the grandson of Ulugbek. Mausoleum was attached to the existing complex of two buildings – Madrasa and Khanaka, forming the third side of the courtyard between them. The fourth of them was decorated with an inlet portal decorated with a tiled mosaic. Until now, only this portal and mausoleum survived. Clear building volume, large ornament mesh from blue and blue bricks on the walls, huge inscriptions on the drum, the absence of fractional members and a small decor create a magnificent image of the tomb of royal. In the interior, this impression is enhanced by the height and decoration – a greenish panel of onyx, walls and dome with paintings and embossed decorations, flashing gilding, openwork white grate around the tombstones. Among them are strict beauty dark green jade tamur tombstones. Under the floor of the tomb placed crypt with sarcophagi buried.
In XV B. On the board of the grandson of Timur – Ulugbek and subsequent thimurides, the construction of less grandiose was built in Samarkand, but the nobility of the forms and harmony of color glazing cladding was built. These are the construction of the time of Ulugbek in "Shahi-Zinda" (input portal, mausoleum "Kaza-Zade-Rumi" and eight-marched) and madrasa in the registan (1420 g.) – Large square in the most lively part of the city. Madrasa suffered greatly during its existence. It was subjected to restoration, but the dome over the angular premises were not restored. Madrasa is famous for its decor. Tiered mosaic of the portal on the tonality and composition is one of the best samples of this type of building.
The unique building of Ulugbek was the observatory near Samarkand. It was round in terms of a three-story building. In this observatory, worked Ulugbek with his associates. Astronomical observations were held here, which served as the basis for his works, which were put forward by Ulugbek to the number of outstanding scholars in the world. After the murder of Ulugbek, the observatory was abandoned and already in XVI in. turned into ruins. Soviet archaeologists discovered its foundation and part of the astronomical instrument in the ground – a sextant with a height of 11 m. Along with the monumental buildings of Samarkand XV in. Small architectural ensembles, in which the free and picturesque layout was carried out with a large artistic tact.
Such an ensemble "Khoja-Abdi-Darun". Mausoleum "Abdi-Darun", Built in the XII in., was expanded in the XV. An extension of the second dome room with a portal decorated with glazed bricks. The inner courtyard of the ensemble is surrounded by this mausoleum, the huts of the late Madrasa and the Summer Mosque XIX in. with quince on wooden columns. Water and green plantings, silence and yard shaders create an impression of intimacy.
In the XVI B., When the capital becomes Bukhara again, construction in Samarkand subsides. Many buildings come to launch.
In XVII B. In the registan, on the spot of incorporated "Khanaki Ulugbecka" Building "Madrasa Cher-Dor"(1619-1636.). The building is put on one axis with Ulugbek’s Madrasa and repeats its facade not only with dimensions, but also the whole composition. However, minarets are delivered here only at the corners of the main facade. On each side of the portal arch placed a mosaic image of the Sun with a human face in the rays of Himba and Lion, catching up Lan (the image of Lion Madres is obliged to be their name: Sher-Dor – having Lviv). In the decoration of the building, a carved tile mosaic dominates, in its tone, somewhat inferior to the excellent mosaic Madrasa Ulugbek.
The third side of the Registan Square was built up "Madrasa Tilla-Kari" (1646-1660.) In place of the caravan-shed by the time. Since Timur Mosque "Bibi-Hano" was then in the destroyed state, in the premises of the Madrasa "Till-Kari" Friday mosque was included. Large gilding in the interior of the mosque Madrasa obliged to his name "Till-Kari", T. E. Gilded. The appearance of this madrasa does not have the magnifier characteristic of two other in the registan. However, Till-Kari does not violate the monumentality of the buildings of the registan, the community of compositions of buildings and their flavor. Ensemble Square Registan has an incredit value in urban planning and causes admiration for the integrity of the plan.
It is unlikely that there is some other city in Central Asia except Samarkand, which would be subjected to such numerous troubled events, coup, and repressive testing. The great capital of Tamerlane, her wealth and greatness fascinated the greedy eyes of feudal conquerors, and each of them considered a great honor to take the throne Samarkand.
Previously, the 16th century, the Central Asian fields of thimurids were conquered by nomadic Uzbeks, whose leader was Mohammed Sheibani Khan (1451-1510.).
At the very beginning of the 16th century, Samarkand for a short time was captured by the Fergana ruler Zakhritdin Babur. In his famous memoirs, Babur left the description of Samarkand of that time. "Samarkand – amazingly beautiful city", – Writes Bur, – "having one feature that could be found in a limited number of cities: each type of trade and industry is performed in special separated stalls or workshops, that is, the categories of crafts, trade and retail are never mixed. Beautiful tradition. Here – good bakeries and dining. The best paper in the world is produced in Samarkand. In Samarkand there is a production – dark red velvet, which they export to all countries. Samarkand produces beautiful (and large quantities) fruits: grapes, melons, apples, grenades. Good and all other fruits. But especially great – Samarkand apples and "Sanibe" (Vintage)".
After the XVII century, the situation in the country has changed. The architecture of Samarkand no longer rose to the heights achieved in his wonderful ensembles. Walked a century. Some of the buildings could not withstand the onslaught of time, earthquakes and died. Only the ruins remained from the grand mosque "Bibi-Hano". Madrasa and Khanaka disappeared from the face of the earth in the complex "Gur-Emir". But the ancient Samarkand did not stop his existence. Now it is a growing, developing city again, one of the industrial and cultural centers of Uzbekistan.
Carefully studied and restored archaeological and historical monuments of Samarkand organically entered his modern appearance, which is formed by new buildings and squares, hotels and quarters of residential buildings. Bearing a large cognitive and aesthetic value, architectural monuments of the past enrich modern Samarkand.
In 2001, the city of Samarkand was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.