Qin Shihuandi – China Association
About two and a half centuries in the history of China took the period of fighting kingdoms. In this era, diverse kingdoms ceased to recognize even the formal domination of the house of Zhou. From the IV century BC began the steady strengthening of the king of Qin, ended by the final association of China under the Qin’s start in 221 to our era. Although Qin Shihuhandi was, of course, an outstanding historical person, the "crosslinking" of the subway, from the warring "patchwork" of states – only partially his merit. In many respects, the result of the process was predetermined by the reforms and foreign policy actions of its predecessors.
Strengthening the kingdom of Qin
The main stage of the union fell for the period from the 230th to the 22nd year B to our era, but a period that can be considered preparation for the creation of the empire, stretched for many decades.
In 316, Qin swallowed the weakened kingdoms Ba and Shu.
In 293 – the Cinns defeated by the combined armies of Wei and Han in the battle of Ince. As a result of this victory, Qin’s position has improved significantly, and the weakened Han and Wei could already claim to dominate China.
Acted in nine years, in 284 BC, coalition of six kingdoms (including Qin) defeated the troops of Qi. From this defeat, the kingdom of qi finally did not recover. At the same time, hostilities significantly weakened the forces of the kingdom of Yan.
In 260, one of the many Wars Qin and Zhao occurred, after which the power of Zhao was undermined forever. Cigns captured and killed about 400,000 Zhains soldiers who believed promises to preserve them.
The chronology of the association, 230-221 BC. NS.
The final stage of the unification was held under the beginning of Qin Shihuandi and ended with the creation of the empire. The troops of Qin consistently won Han (230 g to. NS.), Zhao (228 g), Wei (225 g), Chu (223 g), Yan (222 g). In 221 BC, a conquest of the last "patchwork" state of Qi and the period of battle kingdoms were finally ended with the creation of the first centralized Chinese state.
At the time of the proclamation of the empire in Zhen (Qin Shihuandi) was 39 years old. Ahead of the monarch has remained even eleven years of management united by him. During this time, he built many of the most famous sights of China and conducted many reforms that strengthen the situation of the new state.
The first thing for the newly related country took the new "status" title for the monarch. The title "GUN", approximately corresponding to the European "Grand Prince" or "Duke", was clearly not suitable. Did not fit the title "Van", the European analogue of which could be the "king" or "king", as the rules were ruled by the kinters of kings and for the lord of the powerful general-day state the title was somewhat fine. So the title appeared and the throne name Qin Shihuandi, "First Emperor Qin". "Huangy" was the result of the addition of the definitions of "Juan" ("the ruler", "Augustist") and "Di" ("Emperor").
Significant part of Qin Shihuandy reforms was aimed at securing imperial status and prevent possible threats to the existence of a newly formed centralized state. To do this, it was necessary to create a strong managing center, take measures to protect against external enemies and potential separatists, introduce general imperial standards and build a solid economic basis. To protect against external enemies from the north, the Great Wall of China began to build. Immediately after the addeas of the throne, In Zheng took up the construction of his own tomb, Qin Schuoladi tombs, where the famous terracotta army was found relatively recently, consisting of almost 9,000 clay soldiers. Hundreds of thousands and millions of subjects were involved on the grand imperial construction projects.
The city of Xianyang became the center of the new empire, where hundreds of thousands of representatives of the elites of the conquered kingdoms and their families rearranged. Such a simple way Qin Shihuandy collected potential separatists in one place. Here, in the new capital of a new country, they were easier to keep controlled by control. The reformer ruler also conducted a large-scale standardization. Unified standards deal with the length of the axes of chariots, measures and weights, territorial division, road network, monetary units, letters. Standardization was not only to simplify all spheres of the life of the empire, but also to promote faster "stitching" yesterday’s independent kingdoms into a single education.
Now the city is named Xi’an (or Syyan) and no longer plays a significant role in the political life of the country. And although the leadership of the PRC at one time wandered ideas about the transfer of the capital in Xi’an, Beijing remains in China. It is here in the hall of the People’s Assemblies, the large congresses of the Communist Party of the People’s Republic of China are gather, it is here in the center of Tiananmen Square in a crystal coffin lies the body of the leader of the revolution – Mao Zedong. And Xi’an lives his life, far from the metropolitan intrigue, develops tourist business. Relatively recently, Xian replenished a list of cities where you can fly by direct flight from Russia.
Despite all the reforms, after the death of Ying Zhen Empire, began to crack on the seams and for just a few years he experienced his ruler. The first pancake turned out to be a coma, but the Chan Empire came to replace the Empire became a more sustainable state and lasted for more than four centuries, the absolute record in the history of China. Institutes and Board Han became a model for all subsequent dynasties, but the existence of Qin did not pass without a trace. From the hieroglyphic, as a result of the writing reform Qin Shihuandy, leads its beginning to the modern hieroglyphic letter of China. For a long time kept its importance as the main defensive structure of the country of the Great Wall of the Wall, the construction of which in Zheng took up immediately after the advent of the throne.
And, of course, it is worth mentioning the imperial title, first emerged at the rule of Qin Schihuandi and preserved up to the victory of the Xinhai Revolution in 1912, when the last emperor Pu and expelled from the Forbidden City. By the way, the centralized model of the authoritarian rule of the first emperor Qin was practically unchanged inherited by the Han dynasty. Created Qin Shihuandi The state apparatus over the next four hundred years has proven its viability as a mechanism for managing a large state.