Pyramid Pharaoh Micherina (Mencar)
The smallest of the three great pyramids in Giza was the tomb of Pharaoh Mixer. At tourists, it does not cause much interest due to modest sizes. Visitors to Plateau Giza believe that there is nothing to watch, and focus on the pyramid of Heops and the pyramid of Heffren. And in vain, because this pyramid is unique, and several legends and interesting historical events are connected with it. Let’s start with the story of her builder – Pharaoh Mikherina.
As of April 2021, the Michery Pyramid (like the remaining pyramids in Giza) is open to visitors. The pyramids were closed for a while during Lokdauna at the beginning of the pandemic, but they quickly opened (from July 1, 2020). Now there are no restrictions on the number of visitors. Buy or book tickets do not need. Unfortunately, tickets went up, details in this article.
About Pharaoh Mikherina
The main source of information about Pharaoh Mikherin for us remains ancient Greek historians Herodotus and Manphone. Unfortunately, we have no present written sources in ancient Egyptian language. Judging by the descriptions of the Greeks, the fate of Micheryina was sad.
Real Egyptian name of this ruler – Mencar. Micherine name is a Greek interpretation. Traditionally, in Russia we use the Greek names of the pharaoh of the ancient kingdom. Recall the famous Heops, who actually called Hufu.
Mencaru was the son of Pharaoh Hefren and his heir. He entered the throne after the death of his father, and probably at that moment had already had an old age.
Mencar abolished the policies of the oppression and condemned his predecessors of Heops and Heffren, he tried to be a good ruler. He again opened the temples for the people, allowed offering to the gods. He tried less to force people to build works of temples and pyramids. Herodotus notes that he spent the court fairly and paid compensation from public funds.
It is believed that the gods cursed Menkura. He was born only one son, and he died in infancy. Hearted the death of a child, he ordered to make a gold-plated wooden statue of a cow and bury the child inside.
Somehow the priests handed him the will of the gods, they announced that Mencara would live for another 6 years, and for the 7th year he would die. Pharaoh asked: why the previous pharaohs lived and ruled so long, although they were tyranans, and he is a good ruler, but should die so soon?
The priests answered: the gods punished Egypt, the people should suffer 150 years under the yoke of Tiranans, and you violate the will of the gods with our pious rule. Mencar saddled. He began to spend days and nights in idleness, at night demanded to light the lamps so that it was light, as the day. He turned 6 years in 12, but died after this time.
It is difficult to say how important these legends are historically reliable. In problems with confusion, you can not exactly doubt, and no curse here "doesn’t smell". Pharaoh was married on his own sister, and Incest never ever ended well.
All other facts sound in the spirit of the ancient Greeks: Tirana and good ruler, curse and injustice of gods, rags and drunkenness. If in this legend to change the name to Greek, then we can not distinguish it from the myths of ancient Greece.
Most of the Egyptologists agree that this legend is created based on historical facts interpreted by Herodotus and Manephon in terms of their ideology and culture.
What did the Pyramid of Micherina appeared before
After construction, the height of the pyramid was 66 meters, now the height of the structure is 62 meters. 4 meters are small losses, comparing with 10 and 7 meters, on which the neighboring Heops and Heffens pyramids decreased. The length of the foundation is 109 meters, and it has not changed over the last 4500 years. The base of the pyramid fell asleep with sand, which ensured the safety.
The Pyramid of Mikherina is at a distance of 200 meters from two other pyramids, and visually the difference in size is not so felt. With some angles (see. photo on the right) even it seems that it is not much inferior to the pyramid of Heops.
Greek historians write that she was the most beautiful of three. Facing the first 16 tiers of the pyramid was made of red granite from Aswan, the cladding of the mid-structure was made by their white limestone from the tours, and the top was also red of the granite. According to the composition of the colors, she resembled the modern flag of Austria.
This pyramid shone with different colors and produced an indelible impression on the ancient people. Sorry, but Mencar himself did not see this spectacle. According to the results of the excavations of archaeologists, it is already clear that he died before the end of construction.
This conclusion can be done, looking at the memorial temple of Pharaoh Menkura, the ruins of which are located nearby. It is made of limestone slabs from the bottom, and on top are completed from the brick. That is, at the second stage it was built by the cheapest way. Such a decision could take only the heir of Pharaoh after his death.
There is an opinion of some historians that when the pyramid finished after Mencar’s death, then it was laid out not by the Turkish granite, but a brick, which was smeared with a white solution from above.
This version is not consistent. Traces of these bricks did not remain, and they were supposed to stay intact. They have nothing valuable in them, and Arabs would not take them to remove and clean the pyramid from them.
Another feature of this pyramid was the use of larger blocks than for the peyramides of Heops and Heffren, the blocks are also worse than polished. These facts indicate a hurry with which it was erected. Herodotus and Mannefood write that Pharaoh himself ordered polishing blocks less thorough to ease the life of the worker.
As it looks now, and what to look at tourists
The first important feature to pay attention to – the Pyramid of Micheer in several places remained facing. The largest untouched section of the facing is near the main entrance.
On the pyramid of Heops, there was only a pair of stacked stones. On the pyramid of Hefren cladding a lot, but it is on top, and it is almost not visible to tourists.
Only looking at these granite slabs, you can understand how the whole pyramid looked earlier. This is an "exclusive", and most tourists lose a lot when they are not suitable for the Pyramid of Micheer, considering it uninteresting. In the photo on the right shows the facing blocks below.
Heops and Hefren’s pyramids stand on a flat base of the Giza plateau, and in the place of the construction of the Pyramid Micheer Plateau Overlooking. Of course, it was impossible to start construction on such a surface.
Builders prepared a special stone terrace to raise the monument already on it. Irregularity is clearly visible, they emphasize the complexity when building this pyramid compared to neighbors.
Many tourists ask an interesting question: what is it for a big groove on the surface of the Pyramid of Micheryne on the northern slope? (cm. photo on the left).
This is a very interesting story. Probably, many readers know Sultan Saladin – one of the most famous Egyptians. He had a few sons, and one of them ruled Egypt. It was in the 12th century. His name was al-chalk al-Aziz Otman Ben Yusuf.
He decided to glorify a very unusual way – to dismantle the Egyptian pyramids.
How he came to mind such an idea? Why and who needed it? The answers did not know his contemporaries, and do not know historians now. The only reasonable assumption – he wanted to disassemble the pyramids in search of treasures.
He decided to start with Micheer’s pyramid as the smallest, so to speak, "practice on cats". He hired workers who worked 8 months. This big furrow – the result of their activities.
Stones separated with the help of levers and wedges, and then pulled rope to reset down. Landing, the stone was immersed in the sand, and it was very difficult from there to extract.
After eight months, the prohibits managed to convince Sultan that it was not easier to destroy the pyramid than to build it. Grozda remained as a grand monument of human nonsense.
Remember the expression "break – do not build"? This folk wisdom is valid in all cases, except the great pyramids Giza.
Sultan al-Aziz rules for only 5 years and died during the hunt in 1198. He did not leave any memory other than this furrow. It can be said that an attempt to demolish the pyramid of Giza really glorified him, he achieved his. As far as we know, there are not even his portraits left, we had to show you a portrait of his father – Sultan Saladin.
In front of the Micheerine pyramid, there are three small pyramids. They have no names, but only numbers: G3A, G3B and G3C. Presumably, G3A was intended for spouses and sisters of Pharaoh Micherina – Queen Hammernebti II. The rest of the two and remained unfinished. During the G3B excavations, female bones were discovered inside, but dated earlier period. Apparently, someone decided to use the tomb repeatedly.
In the tradition of the ancient kingdom, it was adopted that the funeral complex consisted of a large and small pyramids, and a memorial temple. Each pharaoh of ancient Egypt after death was deified, and in his temple he prayed and brought victims.
The memorial temple of Pharaoh Micherina has been preserved very bad. As we have already noted, the foundation of the temple was made of limestone blocks, and then it was completed to build from bricks. The brick part collapsed almost completely. But, blocks weighing up to 200 tons and today amazing imagination. As soon as the ancient Egyptians could move them?
The temple quickly fell asleep with sand, as well as the base of the pyramid. And it turned out to be huge luck for archaeologists. In 1908, the Joint Expedition of the University Harvard and the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston Dipped the Temple and found 7 large statues and a large eighth fragment. Sculptures are made of slate.
Four full statues depicted the Faracon Micheryan accompanied by two goddesses. Such sculptural compositions began to call "Triads". It was a grand discovery, since the statues are greatly preserved in the sand.
In the photo on the right you see the most famous of them – Micheer with the goddess Hathor and Goddess Bat. Her and two more Triad Micherina can now be viewed in the Cairo Museum. Another Triad Micheryina is now in the Boston Museum of Arts.
In addition to these triads, the sculpture of Pair of Pharaoh Micherine with Women Hammernebti II and the statue of the Sitting Pharaoh in the natural value of Alabaster. The find of these sculptures is one of the most striking events in the history of Egyptology. It can only argue with the autopsy of Tutankhamon’s tombs in Luxor in the valley of the kings or the opening of the temple Abu Simbel in Upper Egypt.
Legends and Puzzles Pyramid Micherina
One beautiful and something romantic legend is connected with the pyramid. There is a hypothesis that the pyramid was originally built a small size with a base of 60 by 60 meters. This hypothesis has indirect confirmation. The legend states that with the most Micheryine did not have time to complete her, and she stood 400 years old, until she decided to use the Queen Nitocris already from the 6th dynasty of the Egyptian pharaohs.
Nitocris was the wife and sister of Pharaoh Merenra II, which was killed as a result of a conspiracy. She learned the names of the murderers, called them on the feast and locked in the room where the water was let. They all remained inside and choked.
Those readers who know our history well, already experiencing a strong feeling of deja. Somewhere it was already!
This is almost a complete copy of the legend of Princess Olga, only she did not hang anyone, but burned the killers of her husband in the bath. This plot is found in different cultures, and completely independent. This is a classic – a wife occupies a throne and tweeks for her husband and ruler.
According to legend, after the violence of Nitocris committed suicide with him, rushing into a burning building. On the same legend, she managed to finish the pyramid, and there she was buried.
Superval locals believe that the soul of Nitocris remained in the pyramid. The gods did not accept her, as she had no right to be buried there. At night, her spirit sometimes appears near the pyramid in the image of an excellent nude girl. She fascinates men, falls in love with himself. A man goes crazy and looking for her to the end of his unfortunate life.
Most likely, this legend came up with tourist guides in order to entertain tourists. In any case, it is better not to go to the Pyramid Micheerina at night. Not only that Nitocris can be crazy, and even local can rob.
This is a very interesting legend, but unfortunately, no gram of truth in it. Herodotes and Manphone tell about the queen, but there is no one in the Egyptian texts. None in any list of pharaohs that are currently available to us, it is not mentioned.
Her husband Pharaoh Merenera II joined the throne after his father Pepi II, which ruled 64 years! Think how much he was at the time of his first? Most likely, he died in quite natural reasons, and not as a result of conspiracy and murder.
Recall that Merover II was the last ruler of 6 dynasty. After it, the rules of 7 dynasty in the composition of only one pharaoh of a noncirical, and then the troubled time began in the history of Egypt, which modern Egyptology calls the "first transition period".
Ancient people always associated "Black Times" with sins of their rulers. And not only ancient, remember Boris Godunova, who rules just over 500 years ago. Naturally, all similar legends over time are replenished with impartial details. You should not perceive this legend, most of the Egyptologists now consider Qanitsa Nitocris with a fictional character. Treat this as a tourist entertainment.
Some sources on the Internet are written that the sarcophagi breeches were found in the room under the burial room of Pharaoh Micherina. To understand how true it is necessary to see what inside the pyramid.
And by the way, that inside?
The only entrance inside the Pyramid of Michery is located at an altitude of only 4 meters from the north side. At the entrance is the passage of 32 meters long, leading at an angle down (downward pass). The passage ends in a small room with sizes of 3.63×3.16 meters. This room is called "panel chamber". She obviously had a protective purpose, there are several false doors here.
From the camera there is a horizontal tunnel, which leads to a large room called "Lobby". From the lobby there is a passage down to the funeral chamber of Pharaoh, there was a sarcophagus with a mummy of the ruler.
It would seem, everything is simple, quite logical configuration of interior. But it has several additional elements representing a riddle for historians and archaeologists.
From the lobby to the top there is another descending passage, which ends deadlock. It was clearly prepared as the main way to the funeral chamber, but they refused it in the construction process. This passage is the basis of the evidence base for the hypothesis, which initially the pyramid was less (with the base of 60×60 meters), and then it was already completed until the current sizes. However, it is indirect proof.
Next to the funeral camera there is another room, which is called "Side Camera". It has six niches in size 2.5×0.6×1.4 meters. This room is the biggest mystery. There is no intentional hypothesis about the appointment of this chamber.
The burial chamber of Pharaoh Micherina has modest sizes – 6.5 meters in length, 2.3 meters wide and 3.5 meters high. It is noteworthy that the burial chamber could not discover long. Tunnels leading from the lobby were disguised.
It is worth saying that in terms of ensuring the safety of mummy, the Pyramid of Micheryina is in the first place among the three Great Pyramids Giza.
The evolution of the sub presentations of the Egyptians is clearly traced about the reasonable construction of the tombs. They come to three important ideas: first, to bury the funeral camera deeper, secondly, to protect it with the doors, thirdly, disguise it all better.
It is noteworthy that at the other end of the world came to similar conclusions – in China. If you get into the valley of the tomb of the Ming dynasty near Beijing and descend to the only open tomb Dinlin, you will see the brilliant implementation of these three concepts. It is a pity that the builders of ancient Egypt did not achieve such skill in the sphere of protection of burial.
The first of Europeans in the funeral chamber penetrated Colonel Howard Weiss. Naturally, he did not find any treasure. All pyramids were robbed another 4000 years ago during the "first transition period".
He found two sarcophagus here. First wooden with bone stops. These bones were later able to dawn, and it turned out that they belong to the era of the Roman Empire. That is, someone was picked up in the pyramid. This sarcophagus can now be viewed in the British Museum.
The second sarcophague was made of basalt, and it was probably the sarcophag of Pharaoh. Now we will not learn this, as the sarcophagus went to the bottom of the sea somewhere in the area of the Gibraltar Strait along with the Biatraix vessel, which was transporting it to England.
Now inside the Pyramid Micheer is completely empty. For a long time, the indoor premises were restored, and from March 2015, tourists began to.
The price of entering the inside of the pyramid – 100 Egyptian pounds. The price of a ticket for Plateau Giza – 200 Egyptian pounds. On the day inside the pyramids allow a limited number of tourists, so we advise you to buy a ticket as quickly as possible – immediately upon arrival at the Giza Plateau.
Interesting and useful to know
– important information on how to get to Pyramid, how much is a ticket, what hours of work are read in the main article "Great Pyramids in Giza";
– Do not try to break down a piece from the pyramid and take home. Customs officers try to identify all items that can represent cultural value. If you catch, then trouble do not avoid. Details in our article "What can not and can be exported from Egypt";
– If during the holidays in Egypt, they aimed on the pyramids, then be sure to get acquainted with the nearest resort of Ain-Saint.
We hope that the Pyramid of Michery will disappoint you. Read the other cognitive articles for tourists about Egypt (Links below).
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A very interesting description of the history of the appearance of the Pyramid of Micherina and the life of Pharaoh, and all the more, T.To. My surname is in the youth of Micherina