Pyramid Pharaoh Heops (Hufu) in Egypt
The era of the ancient kingdom is the brightest in the history of Egypt, which the ancient Egyptians themselves called the "golden age" of their civilization. Pharaohs of this time entered the story due to their gigantic pyramids who became their tombs. In this article, let’s talk about the largest of them – the Pyramid of Pharaoh Heops (Hufu) – the most famous landmark of Egypt.
As of April 2021, Great Pyramids in Giza are open to tourists. The pyramids were closed for a while during Lokdauna at the beginning of the pandemic, but they quickly opened (from July 1, 2020). Now there are no restrictions on the number of visitors. Buy or book tickets do not need. Unfortunately, tickets went up, details in this article.
The biggest misconception
Let’s start with the most important thing: which of the three pyramids on the Plateau Giza – Heops? Knowing that it is the highest of all, 90% of tourists choose visually the biggest and believe that it is she.
In the photo on the right we marked, which of the three is a pyramid of Heops. Remember that the construction in the center is the pyramid of Hefre. Pharaoh Hefren (Hafra) was the son of Heops, although there is an alternative version that he was his brother.
Visually, the pyramid of Heffens looks the highest, although it is 3 meters below the Hoeop Pyramid. Pharaoh Hefren schitril. He built his tomb in the place where the giza plateau itself is 10 meters above 10 meters. From here and such an effect.
Such confusion arises not only in the tourist environment, but at a higher level. It would seem that Google Corporation supplies the whole world with information, and this is the most popular search engine in the world. But, and they are mistaken. Here is a screenshot from Google when requesting the phrase "Pyramid of Heops". As you can see, Google demonstrates us a big photo of the pyramid of Hefre. What can I say? Focused on!
Patriots, rejoice. our search engine Yandex All shows true. Here is a screenshot. We hope, Google employees will correct this misunderstanding by the time you read this article.
And if she is Hoeops?
Hoeop’s pyramid is a rare case in Egyptology, when we can accurately be sure of who owns a monument. Often, the ancient monuments of Egypt were assigned to later rulers. The appropriation technology was very simple – the name of the Faracon-builder (Kartush) was simply shot down with the inscriptions in the temple or in the tomb, and another name was knocked out.
This phenomenon was very common. Take, at least, the famous Pharaoh Tutankhamon. Until 1922, when Archaeologist Howard Carter dug off Tutankhamon’s tomb, Egyptologists doubted the existence of this ruler. He almost did not have written evidence, everything was destroyed by subsequent pharaohs.
In the 19th century, archaeologists often used very barbaric research methods. In the pyramid of Heops used the explosions of powder to search for counters. Traces of such methods you can now see on the surfaces of structures (see. photo on the left).
During such a study, small rooms were discovered above the main burial chamber. Researchers rushed there in the hope of finding treasures, but, of course, nothing turned out there, except for dust.
These premises are only 1 meter in the height had a purely technical purpose. These are discharge chambers, they protect the ceiling of the burial chamber from collapse, remove the mechanical load. But it is on the walls of these discharge cameras who discovered inscriptions made by ancient builders.
These were marked blocks. As we now glue the product onto the goods, and the ancient Egyptian prohibitions marked the blocks: "such a unit for the pyramid of the huof, it was performed then, then stuck then". These inscriptions can not be fake, they prove that this construction was built by Heops.
A little about Pharaoh Heopse
In the past paragraph, we used the name "Hofu". This is the official Egyptian name of this pharaoh. Heops is a Greek interpretation of his name, and not the most common. Other pronunciations "Cheaops" or "Kiopsi" meet more often.
The world is more common in the name "Hofu". If you are traveling on an excursion in Giza with a our-speaking guide, there will be no problems, it will be aware of this phonetic difference. But, if you communicate with local residents or tourists from other countries, we recommend using the name "Hofu".
Although Pharaoh Houfou is one of the most famous Egyptians, it will not be possible to write a lot about it. We know very little about him.
In addition to the construction of this pyramid, we know that Hufa arranged an expedition for the development of useful resources on the Sinai Peninsula. That’s all. Towards only two artifacts have been preserved from huof – a giant pyramid with a height of 137 meters and a small statuette of ivory tall of only 7.5 centimeters (in the photo on the right).
Pharaoh Heops remained in popular memory as a Tiran ruler, which forced people to work on the Grand Construction. We can read about this in the works of Greek historian Herodotus, who visited Egypt and recorded the stories of priests.
Surprisingly, his father Pharaoh Snofer remained in popular memory as a very kind ruler, although he built as many as three pyramids (broken and pink) and overturnished the country twice as much as Heops.
Now the height of the pyramid of Heops is just over 137 meters, although it was originally 147 meters in height. Over the past 4,4600, she lost 10 meters of their height. Reasons for the many, we will talk about them a little later.
Herodotus writes that the pyramid was built about 30 years. At the same time, 10 years left not for the construction of the structure itself, but on the construction of the road, digging channel and other infrastructure work. Modern models, reconstructions and calculations confirm the Herodota version.
Herodotus also writes that it was built 100,000 people. Here is the opinion of modern science and the famous Greek historian diverge. Models and restorations show that 20,000 are the maximum workers who could fit on the construction site.
Previously, it was the opinion that the Egyptian monuments were built thousands of slaves, a Hollywood and mass culture took this idea especially actively.
So many slaves in Egypt then simply was not. And how did they come from? Next to Egypt did not have populated areas where the slaves could be taken. However, the topic quickly "picked up" in Hollywood, and it still does not leave the mass culture. Even in the comedy animated series "Futurama", she managed to beat in one of the series (see. Picture on the right).
Pyramids built hired workers from Egypt himself. Of course, they had supervisors, following nobody, "Halturil".
However, Heops himself managed to "sculit". His pyramid is located on a natural hill that takes about a quarter of the internal space of the structure. Thanks to the hill, builders saved materials and man-watches.
The main material of the ancient Egyptian architects was limestone. It was mined right here – at the plateau Giza. The version that the stones were carried here on the Nile River – the right and incorrect at the same time. Stones really brought, but it was not building blocks, but facing material.
As a pyramid of Heops looked in ancient times
The ancient Egyptians never called her pyramid, they said: "Horizon Hofu". The construction of such a name was due to its shining shine, but now you will not see this brilliance.
The outer surface was not a stepwise, as now, and was covered with facing stone. Two types of stone were used – white limestone from tours and red aswan granite. Granite was a more expensive solution, because from Giza to Aswan sailing 900 kilometers. Delivery cost Astronomical money. Pharaoh Heops was able to afford only white limestone.
Facing polished to the mirror glitter, and the pyramid shone in the sun like a lighthouse. Hence the expression "Horizon Hofu". On the photo on the left you see this cladding in the place where it is preserved until our time.
Now there is no facing on the tomb of Heops, it was removed by the Arabs and used as a building material.
Guides say: "What a pity that we cannot see this facing in our time". Why can’t we? Can! Pate in the ancient mosques of Cairo, they are all stacked from this facing stone. And this is not an assumption, this fact has been proven by scientific methods.
We have already said that Heops’s Pyramid lost 10 meters of its height in the last 4,4600 years. Loss of facing is one of the reasons. The second reason – it is flattened naturally because of its weight. The third reason – before the top of the pyramid was a large stone, which was called "Pyramidon" or "Bengn".
According to Egyptian ideas, the whole world was created by God by ATUM. All religious myths about the creation of the world by God-Creator contain a contradiction: if the world created God-Creator, then where he himself appeared?
The Egyptians were allowed this contradiction to a very extravagant way. According to their legend, God ATUM created himself. By-product of this creation was the pyramidal hill "Benben" – the only one who protruded from the endless world ocean "Nuna". Atum sat on the hill and began to think how and who he was further.
It is believed that all the big pyramids had impartially imitating this stone. They were called "Benben", but now we call them the word "Pyramidon". Pyramidons were covered with gold and inscriptions.
Not a single pyramidone from the tops of large pyramids to this day has not been preserved, although we have pyramidons from small objects. In written sources, they are also not described, and modern Egyptology cannot give 100% guarantees that they generally existed.
And now we think what the impression of the pyramid of Heops produced on ancient people? Even now she is striking tourists, although we can watch huge buildings – Burj Khalifa in Dubai, Shanghai Tower in China or Moscow City Skyscrapers. They did not see buildings with a height of 10 meters high, and here 147-meter Mahina.
How the pyramid looks now and what to watch tourists
First, it is worth looking at the pyramid itself outside, to penetrate her greatness. Tourists can even climb several tiers up. To the top to climb is forbidden, behind it is watching.
Many tourists have a false impression. Blocks of the lower tier have huge sizes – they are greater than a height meter. Visitors seem that the whole pyramid consists of such gigantic blocks, but it is not.
The higher the tier, the more blocks. Blocks upstairs seem very small. Maybe because of this, visitors are not allowed – do not want to spoil the impressions of travelers.
Hope’s tomb open for tourists. Login costs 400 Egyptian pounds. Excursion is quite boring. You enter through the "Robber Login", go down the narrow corridor, then go up the "big gallery" and get into the tomb of Pharaoh, where to see the remains of the external sarcophagus.
Why do we call a boring tour? First, tourists expect to see inside a bas-relief or frescoes with inscriptions on the walls. But there is nothing like that. In the time of the 4th dynasty, there was no tradition to cover the walls with inscriptions, it appeared later in the time of the dynasty.
Inside there is lighting and wooden platforms so that tourists it is convenient to rise. Lighting dim, although there is no big sense in bright lighting, there is nothing to look much.
Of course, inside you will find a lot of inscriptions "here was Vasya" and the likes made by tourists in different languages. Egyptian authorities have no first to express their intention to close the pyramid of Heops and clean the walls from these inscriptions.
There is one thing inside to pay attention to. Moreover, none of the tourists notices her. This masonry in the "big gallery" is a large corridor that leads to the top to the tomb.
In many books and articles, you can read that, allegedly, the blocks in the pyramid of Heops are so well laid out that it is impossible to push the razor blade between them. When tourists are suitable for the pyramid itself, they discover that the blade and the blade and the knife goes. In some slots, you can enjoy your finger, and in some and the leg. There is a reasonable question: where is the truth?
The only place where there really is such an accurate laying is the "big gallery". It is here that you can try to insert the blade between the blocks and make sure that it does not pass.
Blocks were polished before laying to get such an effect. This is the creation of man’s hands, and the reality of such work was confirmed during historical reconstructions. No aliens here "do not smell". Only it is not clear to whom they did and why?
Inside it is impossible to shoot a photo or video. Considering all the above facts, it is difficult to say whether a hike is worth the inside of the pyramid of Hoeop’s 400 pounds. Many tourists come out from there with a feeling of oppressive dissatisfaction and awareness that the money spent in vain. Nearby there is a small pyramid, in which, presumably, Hope’s mother rested. In this tomb they are allowed completely free.
Naturally, there are no treasures inside the pyramid, and in museums you will not find them either.
When and how they opened the pyramid of Heops
When Napoleon Bonaparte entered the pyramid in 1798, she was already empty – neither treasures nor Mumia Pharaoh.
Up to this point in the pyramid penetrated the Arabs under the leadership of the Caliph al-Mamuna. It was the Arabs that the passage was done through which tourists now come inside, called the "robber entrance". They did it very barbaric – kirk and vinegar. Caliph soldiers checked all the premises, but nothing valuable inside did not find.
There is a legend that Alexander the Great was part of the pyramid, spent there night, but nothing valuable was already there at that moment.
Probably, the pyramid included tens of times in antiquity, and everyone saw her empty. We have written evidence of the Epoch of the Middle Kingdom (the beginning of the II millennium BC.NS.), which says that "Pyramids are empty, and their owners are thrown into".
That is, the pyramids robbed at the time of the "first transition period" in the history of Egypt. It happened about 4,000 years ago, and Pharaoh Heops himself lay in his tomb of only 500 or 600 years.
Tourists are allowed only to the main gallery and the tomb, however, in the pyramid of Heops there are still many other premises that should be told in detail.
What is inside
The configuration of the internal premises of the peyramid of Cheops is very different from the rest of the great pyramids of Giza. Inside the pyramids of Hefren and Micheryin is quite simple, the burial chamber is only one, and it is underground.
In the pyramid of Heops of the burial cameras three: one underground, and the rest of two above the surface. Why are their three? Egyptology scientists will still argue.
We know for sure that the Pharaoh Hofu itself rests in the upper chamber. The second camera is called the Queen Chamber, but it is only such a name. Female of Pharaohs buried in small facilities nearby. Presumably that vessels with pharaoh organs were kept in this chamber, which were called "Cans".
The biggest mystery is the lower chamber. She is clearly unfinished, and her appointment is not clear to scientists. There are several reasonable hypotheses on this account.
The first states that it was originally planned to make the Pharaoh’s tomb of Pharaoh, it was the lower chamber, but I didn’t like this idea to the Pharaoh Heops, and he ordered to build two top cameras – one for sarcophagus, second for canopods.
This is a completely realistic version. She has no evidence, but it does not contain contradictions. It is unclear: why Hekops preferred the funeral chamber above the surface? After all, his descendants of Hefren and Micheryin preferred underground cameras.
There is an alternative version. Let’s think about, no one knew when I dirty Pharaoh. There are no guarantees that he lives until the end of the construction of his tomb.
For this reason, the pyramids were built in several stages. It was necessary to ensure a decent burial of Pharaoh even in case of sudden death.
On this hypothesis, the lower chamber was backup specifically for such a case. When it became clear that Pharaoh will live to the construction of its main funeral chamber, the lower chamber was abandoned.
This version is also not devoid of flaws. It is not clear why in the rest of the pyramids there are no upper burial cameras, and in the pyramid of Heops they have. For example, Pharaoh Hefren rules at least 24 years old, he would have done the above-ground funeral chamber.
There is no generally accepted hypothesis on this bill, you can nominate your version.
From the funeral chambers outwards are long corridors, which are called "ventilation mines". Their appointment is definitely not established. The main version is the tunnels for which the soul of Pharaoh had to go to the sky towards the gods.
According to alternative versions, they were actually used for ventilation or for the purpose of astronomical observations.
Interesting moment, that tunnels from the King Camera go to the surface, and the tunnels from the "Tsaritsa Camera" no. This fact testifies in favor of the hypothesis about the tunnel for the span.
Scientists allowed a miniature robot there, which drove this tunnel and stumbled upon a damper with copper handles. The damper was drilled, it turned out to be another cavity and another damper.
Scientists want to drill this second damper, waiting for the permission of the Egyptian authorities for this operation. We hope for her we will see something interesting.
The dimensions of these tunnels are only 20×20 centimeters. The person does not break in them, and the versions of their vehicle can be confidently discarded. These tunnels you can see with your own eyes if you pay 400 pounds and go to the pyramid of Heops.
Interesting and useful to know
– Tourist information: how to get to Gizu to the pyramids, how much is a ticket, read open hours in the main article "The Great Egyptian Pyramids";
– If, during the trip, I decided to see the pyramids, we advise you to seem to the nearby resort of the Ain Sokhni to Cairo;
– We do not recommend trying to break yourself a piece of pyramid and take home as a souvenir. If you get under the selective check if customs officers find, then large trouble are guaranteed – up to prison sentence. Details in our article "What can and cannot be removed from Egypt".
We hope you will like the Pyramids of Egypt. Read about them and other attractions of the country in our articles (Links below).