Ptolemian or Hellenistic Dynasty
In the IV-I centuries BC Egypt passed through the unique stage of his story, about which the name of the Hellenistic Egypt (or Egypt Ptolemyev) says. The former power of the Egyptian kingdom has already sunk in the summer, and Alexander Macedonian came to the world stage, which created a new "world power". Alexander the Great conquered the incows, won small Asia, Syria and Egypt, defeated the Persian power, made trips to India and Central Asia.
Conquest Alexander Macedonsky
In the spring of 334 before. NS. 50-thousand Alexander Army began conquering Malaya Asia. Over the next two years, many cities of Malaya Asia, Syria and Egypt have been occupied. Hard battles alternated with bloodless taking of impregnable citades. Most of the lowland fortresses opened the gate in front of Macedonians and their allies. Fregia capitulated, ephes surrendered without a fight, Likhim Natius was taken from the Persians Millet, despite the presence of the nearby Persian Fleet. In 333, under the Issome Macedonsky managed to hold the Persian army between the mountains and the sea and completely defeat it. Darayavaush himself, more famous for us in the Allensky named Darius, fled from the battlefield.
After a 7-month siege of the Tira and a 2-month siege of the Gaza, the path to Egypt was opened and the history of Egypt entered its Hellenistic period. The main forces of the Egyptians were destroyed as part of the Persian army still under the Issue, and the local Egyptian population was more likely to pass his cities to Alexander, seeing the Savior from Persian Iga. Macedonian wisely did not touch the local faith and customs and did not engage in rapid changes in the usual mistake, but strengthened the local management system of its own garrisons. Almost immediately, the great commander founded the city of Alexandria, in which many famous sights of Egypt are still located to this day.
Alexandria, immodestly called Macedonian in honor of himself, quickly became the most important cultural center, the largest city of Egypt (today the second largest megapolis ARA), the center of Hellenistic culture and the residence of Ptolemyev, rules of Egypt from IV to the I century to N. NS. But with them and old religious centers did not come to oblivion. So, for example, Sakcara necropolis, on the contrary, has become even more popular with lards than before. Ptolemy I Soter was one of the Diarathons of the Macedonian. The commander of Alexander the Great (Diadhi) after the death of the conqueror, two decades shared the empire-founded empire and cleared the "world power" on separate Syria, Vhydinia, Pergam, Hellenistic Egypt and Macedonia. Many items related to the time keeps the Cairo Museum and other major collections of the ancient Egyptian artifacts.
At Ptolemia (they are lards), the Edfu Temple and the Kom-Mombo Temple were built in their current form, and Greek culture and science were enriched at the expense of the Egyptian heritage. If you have an Egyptian currency at hand, look at the fifty-pound bill. It is just depicted by the Edfu temple in his "Ptolemysky". The most famous for our contemporaries the final stage of the existence of Hellenistic Egypt, the times of the last Queen of the Macedonian dynasty. Called this queen Cleopatra. It was at its board that the conquest of Egypt was conquered by Rome, and the Queen herself made suicide so as not to become a captive Octaviana Augustus.
Probably Cleopatra – the most famous Egyptian in our days. Works with the name "Cleopatra" have Pushkin, Blok and George Ebers, Brysov, Akhmatova and Henry Haggard. About the Great Queen Shakespeare wrote "Anthony and Cleopatra", and Bernard Shaw – "Caesar and Cleopatra". Dozens of films have been removed about it, starting with a silent French Cleopatre 1899 and ending with the films with Vivien Lee, Sophie Loren, Elizabeth Taylor, Elena Koreneva, Monica Bellucci and Lindsay Marshal. Its name is called Venusian crater and asteroid №216. Egyptian cigarettes "Cleopatra" are produced in Ara. Solving that bring from Egypt, every second tourist will surely capture a couple of souvenirs with the image of the famous representative of the Ptolemaev dynasty. The number of hotels mentioned in honor of Cleopatra, in modern Egypt about a dozen.
There are thousands of highlighted and later masks, portraits, busts and other images of the government, its appearance was described by many contemporaries, however, from these fragments, a single image does not develop. Plutarch told about unearthly and incomparable beauty and irresistible, but portraits on coins and busts of Cleopatra do not affect perfect beauty. Egyptian statues are often introduced into the appearance of Egyptian faces, and the subsequent images rather "customize" the appearance of the queen under the stalls of the beauty of one or another era. On the sculptural portrait in the British Museum viewed a volitional face with the wrong features. Nose with a hubber, convex, and obviously not a Greek. Deeply planted eyes and protruding chin.
Interesting experiment Dr. Sally Ashton from the UK. Sally with the help of a computer tried to recreate the portrait of Cleopatra, using all the input portraits, starting with masks, busts, coins on coins, and ending with Rostov statues and other images. The result was quite strange: a woman watched a woman with a computer monitor to a scientist, in which neither Egyptian nor Greek features were traced. Rather, she resembled a neo-shaped representative.
In any case, she was a great woman. The queen had an excellent education, knew many languages, including native Greek, Aramaic, Egyptian, Hebrew, Persian, Latin and even Berber Language. The ambitious government dreamed of spreading Ellin’s culture to the whole world, but the collision with Octavian was worth the famous representative of the Ptolemyev dynasty for the loss of kingdom and life. If Cleopatre was accompanied by luck, the history of all mankind could go completely different ways.