At first glance, it is almost impossible to distinguish pseudocratrates on the lake Mistland (Mývatn) in Northern Iceland from real volcanic crater.
Such hills are created when the hot lava meets in its path of swamps, lakes or other small reservoirs, causing steam explosions.
Explosive gases break through the lava surface by a method similar to the Freatic (gas) eruption. As a result, the spray of lava is formed a large hill that resembles a volcanic crater. Pseudocratrates are also known as ground cones, as they are characterized by the absence of a channel for magma, as happens in real volcanoes.
The largest number of pseudocratrates is located in the area of Lake Mangu in Northern Iceland. This soil was formed 2,300 years ago by basalt eruption. The split volcanic lava flowed down towards the Laxárdalur Valley, where it was faced with a small lake, as a result of which a fraatic eruption occurred. A large number of land from the bottom of the lake was raised outside, which became the basis for the formation of pseudocrathers.
Similar explosions very often repeated, forming the current landscape of the lake Mangu. Most pseudocraterters are combined into groups and are located on the small islands of the lake. One of these islands on the south shore has the status of a nature monument and is under the protection of the authorities. Pseudocratrates are a favorite place for numerous tourists who come to Iceland.