Protestants in Jerusalem
At the end of the twentieth century in the world there were 470 million fantastic protestants. Protestantism is a combination of independent churches (20.000 flows and sects!) conjected only by its origin. The appearance of it is associated with the reformation – a powerful anticatolic movement in Europe of the XVI century. In 1526, Speir Reichstag at the request of German princes-Lutheran adopted a resolution on the right of each to choose religion for himself and its subjects. The second Speir Reichstag in 1529 canceled this ruling. In response, followed by a protest from five princes and a number of cities. From here and the term happened: Protestantism. At the beginning of the essay, a huge number of flows and sects was named, the largest of which are in.v.: Lutherans – 85 million., British – 70 million., Baptists – 48 million., Methodists – 40 million., Calvinists – 35 million. and T.D. In 1948, the World Council of Protestant Churches was created, which created the soil for their cooperation and the development of uniform approaches to different concepts. We will now call only those conceptual differences that exist between Protestantism, Catholicism and Orthodoxy: the refusal of the hierarchy; Simplified cult; lack of monastics; Cults of the Virgin, Saints, Angels, Icons; The number of sacraments is reduced to two: baptism and communion. The main source of the creed – Sacred Scripture. In addition to general information, it gives us the opportunity to better understand the atmosphere of Protestant churches that we have to visit.
Hospital Augustus Victoria and the Church of Ascension. THE LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION
The active stay in Jerusalem Europeans, which began in the XIX century, led to intensive construction, which changed the appearance of the city. One of the countries dominated in this process became Germany. She operated in several directions: education, health care, service and religion service. The main efforts were made by Protestants. They raised the greatest number of buildings. An architectural style adopted on the territory of Germany was elected, especially its southern part. The quality of construction was very high. Evidence of this are well-preserved buildings and "Augustus Victoria" – There is an excellent example.
During the visit of Emperor Wilhelm II in Jerusalem in 1898. Representatives of the community Protestants-Lutheran turned to him with a request to build a building for panels from Germany and hospital for patients with malaria. Soon in Potsdam, the project assistance was founded, in 1903. Acquired a plot of 81 hectares, in 1907. The first stone is laid, and on April 9, 1910 – the church was solemnly sanctified. The development of the project was instructed to architect from Berlin Robert Leibnitsa, before which they put three tasks: 1. to intend a construction for staying pilgrims from Germany; 2. Planning a place to hold meetings, holidays, ceremonies and 3.Ensure the accommodation of members of the community living in Palestine and Syria. Additionally, the emperor demanded that the structure be like a castle of his father in Germany Hohenstaufen and that it was visible "from the sea coast in the west to the Moir Mountains in the East". Taking over the overall development of the project, p.Leibniz is attracted to its implementation of two more architects: Theodore has been treated from Jerusalem and Gotlib Schumacher from Haifa.
The main building is planned from three monumental parts: buildings with an inland yard, church and bell tower buildings with a sightseeing platform. Entrance to the hospital is an arc in a romance style, decorated with two statues of Lviv and a cross of a knightly Order. From both sides, the statues of saints in the form of medieval knights are located: St. George and St. Michael. Rising along the steps and passing through a spacious lobby, we will turn right. After a couple of tens of meters there is an entrance to the courtyard (Kloster), which occupies the territory of 25 x 43 m. The arcade of the second floor has 99 columns, each of which is different capitals. Above the closed space of the courtyard silently rule the statues of Wilhelm II and his spouse Augustus Victoria. The room was only used in its initial intent at first, taking up to 70 people. During the First World War and the British mandate, there was a conference of the International Jerusalem Mission, from 1939. – British Military Hospital, and since 1948 – the world Lutheran Federation and the hospital of the International Red Cross for Palestinian Refugees on 160 beds. In the conference visit Winston Churchill proclaimed the creation of the Jordanian Hashemite Kingdom.
Out of doubt, the most luxurious structure of the complex is the church, named, at the request of the emperor, the Ascension Church (Himmelfahrts Kirche). It is framed in the traditional style of medieval German churches. It was also the requirement of the emperor who wished to emphasize the German roots of the structure. The dimensions of the building built in the form of the Latin Cross are 32 x 20.5 M. The ceiling of the hall is divided into three parts in such a way that in its central part it seems almost square. Works were produced in 1910 – 11 g.G. Artist from Germany Schmidt on the sketches of the artist Otto Vittali. In the center sends Jesus Pantokrator on the throne of Almighty. His legs are assigned to the moon and the sun, and behind him – a rainbow, which, as you know, symbolizes the connection of heaven with a man. In his hands he holds a book with letters "alpha" and "omega" – the beginning and end of everything. Four Archangels are located in the central sites: Mikhail, Gabriel, Uriel and Rafail. Four diagonals are medallions with images of evangelists, and in external circles – twelve apostles. On the ceiling, in a part located above the altar, there is a drawing with the image of Jerusalem, surrounded by a wall, and a temple. Above the city, in heaven, three angel playing musical instruments, and inscription: Sancta Jerusalem – Saint Jerusalem. The shape of the picture is used to emphasize the trinity of the Most High, which was very common during the Middle Ages.
Over the gallery, on the east side, King Solomon, accompanied by the Prophet Isaiah and Melkacedek. Thus emphasizes the continuity of the Old and New Testaments, the origin of the Savior from the king David dynasty. Above the arch torped to Apsis, two main apostles are depicted: Peter and Paul, and on the sides of the depicted city there are four central characters of the period of the Crusaders: Gottfried Boulevard, Boduen I and Bodueni II, and Fulko I Angeysky – Kings of the Jerusalem Kingdom of the Crusader Period period from 1099 to 1187 g.G.
On the ceiling, above the organ, depicted a vengearian: Wilhelm II and August Victoria, sitting on the throne and holding in their hands the mocks of churches – His humble gift to the Lord. The emperor is accompanied by a group of wise men, and the empress is a crowd of praying. Under the spouses – double medallion, and above them – Cross and coat of arms of gogyenzollers. In the four corners of the church scene, pairs of Crusaders of the XII century are depicted: Pierre de Emien preacher with the Norman Hero Tancred; Emperor Conrad III with the French King of Louis VII (leaders of the 2nd Crusader); King Philip II August from France with Richard Lion Heart from England (leaders of the 3rd Crusade); and Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, who participated in the 3rd crusade with the emperor Friedrich II (the leader of the 5th Crusade). Friedrich II was the emperor who was in Jerusalem and unlike others – came out of it without a fight. Wilhelm II built this church as his successor – he arrived in 1898 in Jerusalem, "Proclaiming" Crusade a peaceful way.
The view of the church looks perfect and alone, despite the fact that a number of works are made by different authors and from different materials. The church building was consecrated on April 9, 1910, together with the Church of Abbey Dorming and Host Hostess.Paul.
From the building of the church, you can climb the elevator to the bell tower for a symbolic fee. Her height is 65 m. With a foundation for 10 x 10 m. She has four large bells. Everyone has a name: Main (6.120kg) – "Rosh Ha-Mother" ("Herrenmeister"), opposite it – "German Kaiser" (2.730 kg) – "Deutscher Kaiser", "Empress" – "Kaiserin" (1.630 kg) and "Shalom" (1.072 kg.) – "Friede". Looking forward and let’s say that their setting corresponds to the tones of the bells of the two other churches of the Old Town: the Savior Church (Redimer) and the Church Dorming. Opening from here Panorama surpasses all expectations. The emperor knew what and where he acquired, and the architect knew that he built!
Address: P.O.BOX 14076 JERUSALEM 91140 ISRAEL.
TEL.: 972-26-287704; 972-26-273665
Location: northeastern part of the oilseed.
How to get: Bus number 75 from the Arab Central Bus Station (located near Schhem Gate, English. Name version – Damascus Gate); Taxi; Bus Firm "EGED" №№ 9, 23, 26, 28, 4A to the Jewish University and then on foot to the church.
Visit hours: Every day from 08:30 to 17:00, if the door is closed – call the doorbell or contact your employee near the cafe.
Entrance: free; Inspection of the hospital’s courtyard – only by prior agreement; Entrance to the bell tower – $ 1.
Additional data: Cafe, Souvenir shop, toilet, fitted free car parking, Concerts of organ music, Photo-video allowed. Pastor – Peter Hirschberg Deacon – Detlev Dormeyer
Church of the Savior (REDIMER). THE CHURCH OF THE REDEEMER
Realize "Walk" According to Protestant churches, the task for the guide is ungrateful, t.To. Here, as a rule, there is no luxury inherent in Catholic or Orthodox objects, spectacularly impressive rites and T.D. However, without them "painting" "Christian Jerusalem" would not take place as such. Is it possible to imagine today that the Church of the Savior (Redimer), to which we now came up, did not always stand here? – So she fit into the surrounding atmosphere. But it stands in some tens of meters from the church of the Mernel! – and consecrated only in 1910.
True, on several ancient foundations. This is evidenced not only by archaeological excavations conducted here, but also the memories of pilgrims. For example, such: "Behind the gates of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, to the south, there is the Church of St. Mary, which is called Latin, because there the monks always served the Lord in Latin, and the assieunts say that the Blessed Mother of God was standing at the crucifixion of her son, our Lord, on that most place where the altar remembered church. Church of St. Mary is adjacent to this church, called small, where nuns live, reverently serving her and her son. Near her there is a house in which the famous stimpleny house is placed in the name of John the Baptist".
Under sexual coating, during the construction of the church, the remains of the buildings of the first and second temples were found, which could be identified with the residues of the urban wall. This conclusion is completely legitimate, t.To. Nearby, in the Church of Alexander Nevsky, found the remains of the wall and the city arch of that period.
On the history of the construction of the current building of the Church, we will be better learning from the text of the sign inside: "In the name of the Most High, Father and Son and the Holy Spirit, Amen! This sacred temple is devoted to the Lord to our Jesus Christ, Savior. It was built on the spot, relating to the Church of the Virgin Mary, who was erected by the Knight’s Order of Hospitallers. This place was in launching until the time until the grace of Sultan Turkey was not given to Wilhelmu Great, the King of Prussia and the Emperor of Germany, in 1869. Under the leadership of Emperor of Germany and King, Prussia Wilhelm II built the current building of the Church during the period from 1893 to 1898.G., What is recorded in the document of October 31, 1898 and signed by them and the empress of the August Victoria". Let me remind you that this event occurred during a historic visit to Palestine of the vengeous spouses, in 1898.
The project was embodied by architect Friedrich Adler. The building is located in the center of a typical Muslim market quarter. It seems impossible to enter in it the genius, the majestic building of the Lutheran Church. In theory, it was supposed to be for a similar environment something alien, however, the architect managed to enter a building in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, keeping the elements of the Church of the Crusader. So, Closter (inner closed courtyard) of the monastery of the Crusaders was attached to the southernmost part of the south, and the northern entrance was renovated. In the south of the church there is a Lutheran school, and near it – a monument, in memory of the hospital hospital and the church of the Crusader period.
The new church is Majestic with its simplicity. There are no icons or paintings. The hall is adapted not only for services, but also for concerts, including organ. And at the end of the inspection, the most enduring can climb the bell tower with a beautiful view of the old and new Jerusalem.
Address: MURISTAN ROAD, OLD CITY P.O.Box 14076 Jerusalem 91140.
TEL.: 972-26-276111, 972-26-266800
Location: Old city. Christian quarter. Near the Market Muuristan and the Temple of the Holy Sepulcher.
How to get: to the Yaffian Gate of the Christian Quarter of the Old Town Bus Firm "EGED" №№ 3, 13, 19, 20, 30, 41, 99.
From Monday to Saturday: 09:00 – 12:30 and 14:00 – 17:00
Entrance: Free, raising the bell tower – 0.$ 5.
Additional data: Concerts of Organ Music, the possibility of inspection of the city from the observation deck of the bell tower, toilet. Photo-video allowed.
Anglican Church in Jerusalem
The English Episcopal Church was formed in 1536 by King Heinrich VIII. With the support of parliament, he declared himself head of church and confiscated monastic lands. English Faith Symbol is an Anglicism as an average path (Via Media) between Catholicism and Lutheranism. Such a compromise nature of the doctrine and organization allows AET to enter into ecumenical contacts (ecumenism – the cooperation of churches of various religions, the purpose of which is the rapprochement of all directions of Christianity) both with Catholics and Protestants and Orthodox. The Anglican Church proclaims the cofolican and apostolic faith based on the symbols of faith and the Scripture, interpreted in the light of the Christian tradition, theological study and reason. The center of worship for Anglican is the commitment of the Eucharist. In this offer of prayer and praise, the memory of the life, death and resurrection of Christ is carried out through the proclamation of the word and the commission of the sacrament. The control structure reminds Catholic. At the head of AET, there is a bishop of Canterberian, as Primas of All England and the first Par of the Kingdom. 21 episcoplary. He is given the prerogative of the coronation of kings. The lower clergy is divided into the cathedral and parish. At the head of the first standing Dean (Dean), behind him Archdiacon (Archdeacon). Parish clergy (Clergy) is divided into a parish priest (Incumbent), Vicaris (CURATE) and Capellanov (Chaplein). In N.v. There are about 70 million in the world. Anglican, united in 36 autonomous dioceses operating in 164 countries of the world. Autonomy combined into an organization called Anglican Commonwealth (Anglican Communion). All of them are in unity with the Canterbury Diocese, headed by.v. Archbishop Canterbury Rowen Williams.
Aetse’s feature was always working in a society in which she lived: in schools and prisons, social institutions and management bodies. Revived in the XIX century interest in the holy land could not not intensify the Anglican Church. Anglican Missionary Society founded in 1809 by the London Society for the spread of Christianity among Jews, named "Christian Shepherd – Jews". In 1841, the British Parliament approved the Anglican bishop of Jerusalem, and next year the first English bishop arrives here. Initially, he acted in the Union with the German Protestant mission, but by the 80s, the Union broke up and in 1887, the Jerusalem Anglican Mission establishes, with the beginning of the activity of which the new Aetz life page in Palestine opens. The object of our visiting is.
Saint George Church
The cathedral was erected by architect George Jeffrey and named after St. George, Heavenly Patron of England. St.George (in English Saint George) lived at the beginning of the IV century. He was born in Cappadocia, grew up in a religious christian family. His father took the martyrdom for faith when George was still a child. Mother moved after her husband’s death on her homeland in Palestine. Georgy entered the service in the Roman army. The brave warrior noted the emperor Diocletian. George has achieved great success, but languished by the fact that the emperor was a persecutor of Christians. Having decided, he called Diocletian to stop their torture. For this, the angry mask threw a petitioner to the dungeon, causing it to the pads and exposing tortured. Georgy Straightly transferred them, and after the secondary circulation was a wheelchair. It seemed that the hero would have to die but. From the sky there was a voice: "George, do not be afraid. I’m with you!". Angel appeared, laid his hand on George, and he came down from the wheel, Slavs Lord. Shocked emperor ordered to fall asleep George Lime – did not help, he was survivors, in spite of any attempts to kill him. Feats and miracles Georgy multiplied the number believers in it, but. Diocletian ordered ultimately cut off his head, and George took death named the Lord on the mouth.
Of the many feats of the Holy, the most famous is the following: in his homeland, the city of Beirut, there was a lake in which a huge snake lived. He devoured people and devastated the district, daily demanded people to sacrifice. Reached the queen’s daughter. She was waiting for its o’clock when suddenly on a white horse with a spear appeared Georgy. Having mastered himself with a cross, he rushed to the snake and struck him. For victories and courage in the suffering.George began to call the victorious. Holy Great Martyr George is considered a patron and defender of warriors. It is familiar with his image on the coat of arms of Moscow, from his behalf, the English name of Georgia occurs, and in our case – he became the patron saint of England. So, St. George Church.
Work on the construction of the entire Anglican Center, which included in addition to college and the church, the residence of the bishop, the library, a stable house and premises for clergymen, ended in 1899, and the bell tower, determined the drawing of the complex, was attached only in 1912. At the request of Queen Alexandra, she began to be called the bell tower Edward VII, in honor of her husband, the king of England. All buildings are made in a new style, causing associations with their analogues in England: Oxford Madeleine – College and London Parliament in Miniature.
The style of internal registration of the church does not leave doubt in his English origin. Possible glass stained glass windows, the plots of which are taken from the life of John the Baptist (St. John). They are established in memory of the outstanding American missionary archaeologist James Barclay (James Thomas Barclay) and his wife Julia with.Barclay, who worked in Palestine in the period from 1851 to 1861.G. This is evidenced by a memorable plate hanging in the hall. You can see the Baptistery, presented by the Queen Victoria, Capella, dedicated to Archangel Mikhail, Elegant Gothic Arches, Decorated with Threaded Truck Organ. And coming out of the hall, you can see the small botanical garden with plants mentioned in the tanya located to the right of the building. In the yard, the entrance to which decorates the placement of the gatekeeper in the Lzhettyudor style is located those of the Dean and Bishop, a stimple house, a school for boys, and recently and college for adults belonging to the branch of the Protestant Bishopal US Church.
Address: Nablus Rd.20, P.O.Box 19018 Jerusalem.
Location: East Jerusalem, near Schhem Gate of the Old Town and Gordon Garden.
How to get: Tourist transport or foot from Schhem Gate of the Old Town.
Visit hours: from 08:00 to 16:00.
Additional data: Souvenir kiosk, toilet. Photo-video allowed.
Scottish Church of St. Andrei. St.Andrew’s Church of Scotland
When I heard the name of this church for the first time, it intrigued me: Scots, Sv.Andrei, the second name – the Church of Bruce. What would it mean? Let’s deal with.
The building is located on the top of the hill opposite the Old Town and Mount Sion, close to the Old Railway Station. On the stone, in honor of the foundation of the church, the inscription was carved, which indicates that "… General Edmund Allenby won the country during the battle with Turkish troops and laid the foundation of the building in honor of the liberation of Jerusalem and in memory of the valiant soldiers-Scottish, who fell in battles. December 8, 1917". True, a consecrated building was somewhat later, in 1927.
And now about the names of the church. As we know, Andrei was along with her brother Peter the first student of Jesus, whom he called, seeing them on the shore of Kinneret. The tradition assigned him later the name of the First Called. There is this equivalent in English too: "First Called". So, sv.Andrei became the heavenly patron of Scotland. It happened in 1314, when the future English king Robert Bruce won a speeches for himself, after which the throne won the throne. Cross on which.Andrei was martying crucified, was placed on a blue-white cloth, which became flag from 1385 by the flag of Scotland. In addition, the Order of St.Andrei, on which the apostle holds his cross in the form of a Latin letter "NS" And at the bottom of which there is an image of a thistle flower (buried), which is considered to be a national plant of warlike scott. At the Order The motto: "NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT" – "No one touches me impunity". Scottish say: "Spiny as a burdock and proud like Scot".
Sometimes the Church is called the Church of Bruce, by the name of the previously mentioned King Robert I Bruce (1306 – 1329 g.G.). He bequeathed to get buried his heart in Holy Jerusalem. What was done. In the floor of the Church Hall, the slab in memory of Bruce. And it was like this: the messenger of the king was the Knight Douglas Black. On the way to Andalusia, he died, holding a trusted casket at the heart. From that time, his descendants received the coat of arms with the image of a heart crowned with the royal crown and the motto: "To die or execute".
Archaeological excavations conducted in 1975 on the territory of the construction reserved, revealed the remains of the foundations of the Church of the Byzantine period and many cave borons of the first temple period. They are well viewed from the road passing along the city wall of the Old Town. Nearby they can be examined in the courtyard of the Church. The hall is decorated enough. Along the walls are the banner of the Scottish battalions of the British army who participated in hostilities. Well maintained and solemnly. As it should, obviously be in a similar place.
The premises are adjacent to the building, in which pilgrims stop and just guests. There is an English consulate on the territory.
Address: St.Andrew’s Scots Memorial Church, P.O.Box 8619, 91086 Jerusalem.
TEL.: 972-26-732401, 972-26-714659
Location: Western Jerusalem, opposite the city wall of the old city (David’s fortress), next to the old railway station.
How to get: Urban buses firm "EGED" Nos. 7, 8, 21, 30.
From Monday to Saturday: 09:00 – 17:00.
Sunday – closed.
Additional data: Souvenir shop, toilet, b / n Parking. Photo-video allowed.
Garden Tomb Gordon
The presence of only indirect references to the site of the crucifixion and the tomb of Jesus in the Gospels gave rise to numerous questions at all times. However, before the start of the active pilgrimage period, this problem was not acute. XIX century, with his birth of biblical archeology, he led the scientists to the missionaries that began their more or less systematic surveys. The first attempt of archaeological excavations in Jerusalem took place in 1818 by a group of English travelers who intended to clear the ancient tomb (tomb of kings) north of Schham gate. For them followed such outstanding researchers as f.Katherwood, E.Robinson, Ch.Wilson, K.Chic and others. Soil for doubt and thought was prepared. An attempt to reconsider the authenticity of Calvary and the coffin of the Lord was undertaken by the English-Protestant General by General Charles Gordon (1833 – 85 g.G.) Based on the found in 1867. burials of the I century. He began to analyze the texts of the Gospels, compare them with the terrain and came to the conclusion that Calvary and the tomb are in another place. Perhaps this search stood, as well, the desire of h.Gordon to achieve justice and balance Catholics and its units of British Protestants.
C. Gordon found like-minded people in the Jerusalem community and attracted to the works of Conrad Chic, an outstanding missionary archaeologist, which began its activities in Jerusalem in 1846. He did not immediately start his research. By 1892 h.Gordona has not been alive for seven years, he fell in the death of the hero in the battle of Khartoum (Sudan). But his assumption was confirmed to.Shikom who came to the conclusion that we are talking about the Jewish cave disposal, which from the earlynessizanist period became the place of Christian worship and could well correspond to the place of crucifixion and burial of Jesus. So the Protestant tradition appeared, and the place was called the garden – the Tomb of Gordon or Gordon’s Calvary (Calvary comes from Latin "Calva" – "bald head", "scull").
What version has the right to life? – In my opinion, both. Is that the first ancient, t.To. exist since 325. Clarity could only make an accurate map of city walls of that time, but it does not exist. Both sides are left "With their own", And, therefore, let’s just go through the garden.
The territory of the garden was acquired in 1894, when the community of the Garden of the Garden of the Lord with Headquarters in London was formed in England. The community has the exclusive right to hold the garden. It seems logical to start visiting from the inspection of Calvary. In the far corner, the left of the Arab central bus station, from the observation deck overlooking the rocky wall of the mountain. A little imagination – and the relief really arises, resembling the outlines of the skull as he saw him.Gordon. Didn’t it be that it was here that Joseph Arimafa (Sky) wrapped the body of Jesus white linen veil, took him and "put in his new coffin" ("From Matthew" 27:60)? TO.Chic was not alone in her conclusions. This, for example, installed in 1970 another famous archaeologist Daim to.Cenion: "This is a typical tomb of the I-th century from P.NS.". Add from myself ". which could well be the tomb of Jesus".
On the territory of the garden you can explore a number of other archaeological finds, including waterborgs, olive oil storage tanks, wine, which indirectly also confirms hints present in the New Testament. Protestants say: "He is not here. He raised". And they consider to send services acceptable for themselves in this place where you are invited, on Sundays at 9 am.
We will finish with the words of Charles Gordon, remaining in his diary: "Our father, your spirit, give me the strength to serve you and put you there, where you consider it necessary to put me. Amen!".
Address: Schick Str. Off Nablus Rd. Jerusalem.
Location: The Arab quarter of Sheikh-Jarag, in the area of the Schhem gate of the Old Town and the Central Station of Arab Bus Station.
How to get: on foot from Schhem gate of the old city.
Daily: 08:30 – 11:00 and 14:00 – 16:30
Sunday is closed
at 09:00 – worship.
Additional data: souvenir shop, toilet. Photo-video allowed. Parking – in front of the Garden Tomb,.