Offilers of the Athenian Acropolis
Propilenes – this is the main entrance or entry, as a rule, decorated with columns and portica. The word propellean itself is a combination of the prefix "Pro" (from Latin "to" or "Before") and "Pilli" (which translated from the Greek "Gate"), t.E. if you go into word formation, then it is "before the gate", although in fact it is just a front entrance. Basically, this type of structures was popular in Antique Greece. The most famous propelleans are the main gate Athenian Acropolis. But there are also its front entrances with columns in Russia: propilenes of the Central Embankment of Volgograd, propylene at the entrance to the building of the Smolny Institute in St. Petersburg and DR. But today’s our articles about the monumental masterpiece of ancient architecture – the digestives of the Athenian Acropolis. We will tell about them all that we managed to find.
Offilers of the Athenian Acropolis
The construction of the propellants of the Athenian Acropolis was launched by the middle of the 5th century before our era on the site of the ancient gates of the Mycena. The architect of this outstanding masterpiece is a membrane. As with the construction of other Acropolis structures, white Pentelian and gray Eleusin marble was used here. It is believed that the gate to the Acropolis was never finished – first prevented the war, then the lack of funding. In general, this is one of the most ancient long-term world.
Propilenes (view from the Acropolis)
Athenian propilenes are a rather complicated architectural structure that consists of the central part and two external wings. On each side of the facade, six doric columns are installed, which, if untied, very reminding the columns Parthenon, And this is not a visual deception, but the idea of the architect. On both sides of the doric type columns installed ionic columns. It is believed that such a mixing of two orders in Greek architecture was used for the first time during the construction of propellants.
Six doric columns share the central entrance to five equal passages, the central of which is significantly wider than the rest (about 4.3m). It was here that the Greek path of the Holy Way from Eleusin to Athenian Acropol was completed. The rise to the main gate of the Acropolis took place on a gentle road with a length of 80 and a width of 20 meters. This road was convenient for both people and livestock, which was used to transport goods or sacrifices during religious festivals. And this is one of the most striking examples of the project "Affordable Wednesday".
Now the entrance is carried out in steps, and for people with disabilities there is an elevator on the northern slope
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Claudia, a memorial staircase was attached to the propiliba, and in the third century, the gate of saws appeared in the third century, which in our days are known as Belie’s gate in honor of the French archaeologist, who dug them.
Now, in order to get into the Acropolis, you need to overcome several impressive stairs, and before the passage was completely gentle
Western wing can be divided into Pinakoteki Pavilions (Art Gallery) and Libraries. Together with Church of Nicky Aptereros They give the front entrance to the Acropolis asymmetry and make it unlike any other such structure in the world.
West wing of propellants
The roof over the front entrance to the Acropolis was built from the Kesson plates supported by marble crossbars. At some overlaps, traces of paint have been preserved, after a detailed study of these residues, scientists concluded that the ceiling was decorated with starry sky pictures.
Restored roof of propellants. Like the whole structure, it was made of marble.
According to one of the versions of the propylene, became the first indoor structure of the Acropolis
In the second century BC.NS. Before entering the Acropolis, a pedestal was installed, made of marble Mount Germet. Presumably a pedestal was presented to citizens of Athens Eumonia. Second, king Pergam. Starting from the first century to.NS. The pedestal was decorated with a chariot of a big friend and the patron of Athens – Vipsania Mark Agrippa, who was a Roman commander and the son-in-law of the emperor of August. That is why in modern guidebooks, he is called the pedestal of Agrippa.
Press Agrippa and East Wing
Like other buildings of the Acropolis, depending on the era, propylene changed their purpose. In Christian times, all the pavilions of the flows moved to the church: in the XIII-XIV centuries, the residence of the Athenian Duke de la Rosh was located here. And during the domination of the Ottoman Empire, the warehouse of ammunition and the command center of the Turkish military garrison is located.
If the church inflicted against cutleams of insignificant damage (the Frankskaya Tower was built, disassembled only in 1874), the Turks "tried" to glory – in 1656 an explosion occurred in the warehouse, which led to partial destruction of the front entrance to the Acropolis. Numerous structures are not always used on top of the destroyed propelients.
Frankskaya Tower of 1873 © Dimitris Constantine
At the end of the XIX – the first half of the 20th century, the cores were extracted during the restoration work from the columns, they were made of non-ferrous metal and stretched to the height of the entire column, which prevented it from destruction and added stability during earthquakes. So that they did not notice the loss, instead they were installed cast iron and iron. But by the end of the 20th century, the substitution was revealed – the blocks of the columns were black and began to crack. The Ministry of Culture of Greece in 1975 began the replacement of spoiled blocks, the work was completed only at the end of 2009.
Each block was removed from his place, and then put back
Acropolis cutlery view
Parts of columns and blocks
In the course of this titanic work, it was first disassembled, and then it was collected about 600 tons of marble blocks. Part of the ancient roof was recreated and copies of the ancient Ionian capitals, who decorated the columns of propyl.
It’s hard to believe that each block was removed by hand, the cores were replaced in the columns, and then it was repaired all
Propilenes are the first thing that sees a tourist, climbing the Acropolis, but not everyone pays attention to them, because we are in a hurry to see the famous Caryatid on Portica Erehechteion and dilapidated Parthenon, Meanwhile, antique travelers believed that the most majestic and beautiful part of the Acropolis was the main entrance.
This article was stolen from http: // poznamka.Ru.
If you are going to visit the main attraction of Greece, then stay here a little longer, look at Doric Columns, admire the asymmetricity of this building and try to imagine how many centuries look back. Surprisingly, but if you look at, then propelleans, indeed, in their grandiositia and beauty, it is not inferior to the temples of the Acropolis, but somewhere and are superior to. Antique architects knew a lot about construction, otherwise they would have been able to create such majestic monumental beauty?
Offilers of Athenian Acropolis 2019-07-28T08: 08: 17 + 03: 00 2019-07-23T03: 28: 33 + 03: 00 Natalya ‘Poznamka’