Suitable" Only that food that meets the prescriptions of the Torah (Deuteronomy, 14: 3 – 20) 3500 years ago is considered. They say: "Do not eat any abuse. Here is a cattle that you can eat: ox, sheep, goats, deer and sulna, and buffalo, and lan, and bison, and Orix, and Camelopard. Any cattle, whom the hoofs are used and on both hooves a deep cut, and which cattle chews a chewing gum, that Eat; You just don’t eat out of the cheer and having a split hooves with a deep cut: a camel, a hare and a tushkanchik, because although they chew a cheer, but their hooves are not twisted: they are notchists for you; And pigs, because her hooves are twisted, but does not chew a chewing gum: the unclean she is for you". Everything is clear here, except for Camelopard – this exotic word is called an ordinary giraffe, which in the old days considered the mythical beast, the purpose of camel and panther (hence the name). Bison, of course, no bison, but wild bull, Orix is a large antelope, who lived before in the Middle East.
Next, the Scriptures goes to the water element: "Of all the animals, which in water, eat all who have feathers (fins) and scales; And all those who do not have feathers and scales, do not eat: it is unclean for you". Thus, crabs, shrimp or oysters on the table with a believer Jew may not appear under any sauce. Not forgotten in broadcast and birds: "Each bird is clean Eat; But so that there should not be from them: Eagle, Grid and Sea Eagle, and Korshun, and Sokol, and Drakes with the breed of them, and every crow with the rock of him, and ostrich, and owls, and seagulls, and hawk with a breed of him, and Filina, and Ibisa, and Swan, and Pelican, and Sip, and Fisherman, and Herons, and Him with the breed, and the fodder, and the bat". Not all famous birds are included here, but according to the tradition of Jews (as, however, most of the other nations) include in their diet only the meat of chickens, ducks, geese, indeek and more pigeons. Unambiguously forbidden to eat reptiles and others "creeping creatures" (Sherz), except for four species of desert locust. Important detail: Uncleans are not only animals themselves, but all that it comes from them. So Jews eat only red caviar. Ostra has no scales, it means that it is prohibited and, accordingly, black caviar, too. It is impossible to eat eggs of unclean birds (for example, ostrich), as well as eggs, in which the development of chicks began. There is only one exception: not only allowed, but also recommended for food honey of non-coherent bees.
In the same place, in the Book of Deuteronomy, contains a categorical prescription: "Do not vibya in his mother’s milk". From this, the most strict prohibition of Kashrut was derived – on the simultaneous use of meat and dairy products. The time interval between the intake of meat and dairy food should be at least six hours, between dairy and meat – two hours. Moreover, wash foods and clean the dishes in which meat and dairy dishes were prepared, you need in different sinks, there are them from different dishes, and even storing it is put in different cabinets (or refrigerators) so that they do not come in touch with each other even by chance. Earlier in rich houses for these purposes two kitchens started.
All other products are called "Parwe" (in translation – "neutral"), you can eat them with meat, and with dairy. Usually, products marked as a parve are products of plant origin, the exception is a fish, which is not allowed to eat at the same time with meat.
It is strictly forbidden to eat blood intake: "Only the bond, so as not to eat blood, for blood is a soul: so do not eat soul with the flesh". Believers Jews eat meat, from which all the blood is removed to the last drop, so animals are clogged by strictly defined rules (Schita). Does Reznik engaged in this (Shohetet) – one of the main people in the traditional Jewish community. Only he knows how to sharpen the knife before the sharpness of the razor blade and the accurate blow to the animal the necessary veins. Sheuchet is not less than a year in special courses, after which he receives a diploma with rabbi signature. Only on hand setting when the knife sharpening leaves 80 to 100 hours of study time. For Schchita uses a special knife – a halaf whose sharpness is checking each time it checks the nail. If he finds the slightest offshore, the knife is replaced by another. Such a sharpness is needed as in order not to cause an animal extra torment, and so that the blood flowing from lived did not have time to leak into the flesh and make meat as notocher.
So that blood flowed faster, the carcass hang down his head, and then washed in cold water, sprinkle with salt and put on the obliquely furnished board above the tank where blood flows. An hour later, the meat is once again rinsed, after which it is considered kosher. Salt should be somehow large: it pulls the blood, but in contrast it does not penetrate the meat. For the liver, where there is particularly a lot of blood, this is not enough: it sprinkles with salt, pierce several places and roasted on open fire. The same operation is done with a removal. Kosher loses the meat of the sick animal (brought, that is "Painted") or an animal killed by predators or the deceased randomly (trephy, that is "Raspassed"). In short "Trefa" often referred to all non-cooked products, although it is incorrect.
ONE Specialist – Mashgih, or an observer selecting the allowed parts of the animal monitors. The fact is that the Kashruta rules forbade there are rear parts of the carcass, internal fat (he is intended for the tradition of the Almighty), as well as the hips, of which the Sedalish Nerve did not remove – as the memory that the once-plants of Jacob were injured. Nerve removes another expert called "Menacher". When the selection is over, Mashgya puts a seal on meat confirming his kosher. This can do and shake, if it has the necessary qualifications, – in this case it is called "Shub" (Reduction from "Shoyhet U-Vakov", that is "carcass"). The same seal (Exker) is raised today on many other products, because many believers use products prepared exclusively by Jews. It applies to meat, and bread, and wines. Soften the attitude towards vegetables and fruits: they can eat everything, but only without worms and larvae of insects, which are considered unclean. For the same reason, it is necessary to carefully sort out the croup, and to sift the flour through fine sieve.
The most stringent adherents of traditions are considered even kosher foods prepared by non-Jews, as noticeable (Bishul Akum). True, it applies only to food that needs to be prepared. In addition, if at least in one of the three stages of cooking (ignition of fire, a Jew, a Jew, the dish of the IMG becomes kosher.
There may be medications as noticeable, especially those that are concluded in capsules from gelatin derived from animal bones. Most often, Jews are allowed to use them, because for patients, the coupings are softened. Nevertheless, many Jews prefer to contact doctors and pharmacists "From their" In the hope that they have all the cosher medications.
Special article – Festive dishes, in the preparation of which all prohibitions are essential especially strictly. A lot of solemn events a lot, and each accompany their culinary traditions. In the New Year (Rosh Ha-Shana), which is celebrated in the fall, it is customary to serve bright, non-light and toughest dishes – otherwise life in the coming year will not be sweet. Frequently there is a fish on the table, and her head is sure to file the chapter of the family. Vapapers with fertility symbols: apples, honey and carrot circles. In the joyful holiday of candles Hanukkah, it is customary to prepare roasted donuts and pancakes (Latkes). But in the sad day of the ninth ava, when the temple in Jerusalem was destroyed twice, they are completely unconscious – only a steep egg and bread, sprinkled by ash instead of salt.
On the holiday of Sukkot (Bucket) makes halashi, similar to those in which the Jews lived in the desert when they left Egypt. In these slashes, there are tables on which the citrus fruit is necessarily present, or citron. There are a lot of there and other stairs: salads, soups and, of course, stuffed fish (Fish’s Gephilte), mentioned in many works about the Jewish life. On the spring holiday Purim baked triangular cookies with poppy seeds called "Ears Amana" (CHOMENTASHEN) – In memory of how Jews with the help of Beauty Esfiri avenged Aman, an evil minister of the Persian Tsar.
Purim is the only holiday when the tradition does not prohibit drinking over measures, "until you stop distinguishing the wicked Aman from the righteous MARDECHEA" (Father Esphyri). It is worth saying about the defense rules for alcoholic beverages. Unlike Islam, Judaism does not prohibit and does not even limit the use of alcohol, but only made of kosher products. The ratio is particularly trembling to grape wine: only believers should do it, strictly observing the commandments. Notocher wines and drinks based on them (brandy, liqueurs, tincture) can not be used. But vodka, whiskey, beer and other grain drinks are usually considered kosher.
Of course, the main holiday – Easter (Pesach), when in memory of the forty-haired wanders of Jews in the desert, is accepted by undersensible bread – Matsu or Obricov. These dry cakes are preparing a dough from not having time, so matza personifies modesty and other virtues. On the contrary, yeast dough (Chamez) embodies pride and cvism; All Easter week it is forbidden not only to eat, but even keep at home. All that has been made of five cereals: wheat, shelves, rye, barley and oats. JeworTodoxes do not use on holiday and retalities – any bulk products, including rice, buckwheat, corn, because they may randomly be grains of cereals. They refuse from any vegetable oil, except for olive. In modern conditions, special products with the inscription appear in the trading network "Kasher Le – Peach", that is "Kosher on Easter".
Easter meal (seder) strictly painted. At its beginning, the head of the family will dwells each of the rugged potatoes sitting at the table, which makes in a cup with salted water, so as not to forget about tears shed in Egyptian slavery. Then everyone is eaten on a piece of mattsy, and leave mostly. Steep eggs are put on the ritual dishes – a reminder of festive victims in the Jerusalem temple – and a piece of meat with a bone as part of the Easter Lamb, slaughtered on the eve of the outcome. The rest of the dishes depend on the fantasy of the hostess: what they are more, the better. 50 days after Easter celebrate Shavuck, or Pentecost, the day, when the Jews were taorated. The holy book feeds people like milk, so this day is eaten mainly dairy products – a clear case, without meat.
There is also its food rules for Saturday, when the Jews are forbidden to cook food and even warm it out on open fire. To do this, use a special oven (warmer), which is included on Friday night. The main Saturday dish serves chop – stewed meat with potatoes, onions, beans and everything else, which is found in the house (except, of course, dairy). Previously, on Fridays, the hostess brought their pots with chop to bakery, where they left the dish until Saturday.
There is even such a story as in one place on Friday in front of a woman’s sunset, as usual, put in the public stove of cast iron with food so that the brews to the Saturday dinner remain hot and languishes, reaching the desired condition. The next day, when they took their pots, it suddenly turned out that the poorest mistress due to the lack of meat in the house left a pot with a dairy porridge in a common furnace.
The theological dispute arose: can there be a meat roast, stood in one stove with a dairy dish, despite the fact that porridge was covered with a lid. Only rabbi solve such a difficult question. He judged like this: "Milk Spirit could not not get into the pots stood in the same furnace with meat. Became all the food is not a kosher. It is impossible to insult the Most High, and it will be blessed with his name, mixing the meat spirit with dairy, and even on Saturday. Better stay without lunch". Well, completely without lunch, only the owner of the owner of the owner remained all the rest of the owners. After all, she had no hala, nor fish for Saturday meal. The rest cost cold snacks and conscious debt.
In Talmuda, it tells how Yehuda Ha Nasi – one of the famous Talmud wise men – Saturday was chosen by the Roman emperor. Summer made a huge impression on the emperor. The case was about the end of the II – the beginning of the III century, but it does not matter.
And however, how you now make sure. Book "Aromas of Jewish cuisine", which does not pass by the history of the treats of the emperor (it hurts it is good!) determines chop as "Roast or thick soup, which includes meat, meat bones, potatoes, and sometimes several types of beans in various combinations". Definition is standard. And more or less true. But not without reservations. Hmm, potatoes. In ancient Rome? A terrible suspicion arises that the emperor ate ceaseless without potatoes – compulsory, according to knowledgeable people, component of the dish. But optional not only potatoes – optional and meat. Jewish classic cuisine Eastern Europe – Kitchen of poor people. The emperor did not come to visit the town of the village, and if he came, the owner could not treat him with the sweeping that Yehuda Ha-Nasi. Some people were so poor that sometimes they could not afford even bones even on Saturday. On the other hand, many of the Jews who observe the Jews in Soviet times were deprived of the opportunity to get kosher meat. Then they prepared a chill with "false meat". The taste of meat was imitated by a fried bow.
In this case, what is chum? Some kind of mythological dish, none of the ingredients of which is not obligatory. Not constant even name. Word "chill" Starofranzesian origin, so during the time of Yehudi Ha-Nasi, it was simply not existed – the name of this wonderful dish was different. Specificity is chopped, its essence is not in the composition, but in the appointment and determined by the technology of preparation. Chop – Saturday dish. On Saturday, all work, including manipulation with fire and electricity, is categorically prohibited in orthodox Judaism. Thus, completion of chop work should be timed to the beginning of Saturday. And Saturday (Jewish Saturday) comes on Friday evening even before sunset. In winter, this moment on the latitude, say, Moscow comes early enough. And eat chop the day after coming out of the synagogue. And the dish should be still hot, well, at least warm. Incredible heat treatment duration – this is what determines the specific taste of chop. But, as we see a little later, not only (and not even so much) she. I say: mythological dish.
our oven – Perfect Cooking Device. But it can be prepared on electrical, and even on a gas stove (using an iron sheet), not to mention any programmable electronic pieces.
Chop recipes are extremely diverse. They can be found in any book dedicated to Jewish cuisine. Mentioned "Aromas of Jewish cuisine" offer four recipes with options. As well as a description of cooking technology.
Returning to ancient Roman story. Fascinated emperor asks Yehudi Ha-Nasi recipe – no problems, no culinary secrets, we do not feel sorry, let the emperor will be fine. The sage gives a recipe. The emperor returns to his Colosseum, or where he lives there, immediately becomes a stove, it is careful, even scrupulously. Finally the dish is ready, the venge cook tries: tasty, even very tasty, but – not at all!
The sorry emperor sends a hay-nasi for Jehuda, and he explains him the reason for the relative failure of the project. The specific taste of chop is determined by the special seasoning, deliberately absent in the imperial boiler. This seasoning is Saturday (soon, Saturday). It is she who reports to cease a unique Jewish taste, non-refined for its borders. Outside this Jewish holiday with all its atmospheric and spiritual definition loses what makes it clear, and it becomes just "hot or thick soup, which includes meat, meat bones, potatoes, and sometimes several types of beans in various combinations".
Keep this in mind if you want to cook chop.
What can you not
Where did Kashrut’s rules come from? There are different opinions on this. The Maimonide philosopher explained these rules rationally, believing that they had to teach people to be content with small. Pork ban he connected with the fact that a pig – "Dirty animal that feeds on unclean". Meat cooked in milk – too heavy food; In addition, the cooking goat in Mother’s Milk is an act of ungratefulness in relation to the goat, whose milk has replaced many maternal children. Maimonide generally believed that the Torah prohibits only what harm health. Other thinkers, such as the famous doctor Moshe Ben Nakhman, did not agree with him, pointing out that non-Jews eat unequesant food without any harm. They argued that Kashrut is needed primarily for the soul. This statement was supported by Izhak Abarbelnel – Rabbi, the leader of the Spanish Jewry, who lived in the second half of the XV century, which emphasized that the Torah is not a medical directory. Bans on certain types of food are not related to the care of physical health. They are taking care of the soul. Each commandment has a deep ideological importance to comprehend the content of heavenly teaching. The same purpose is subordinate and prohibited in food of blood, supposedly making a person cruel. Medieval rabbi ovada wrote: "Unclean food surrounds the soul, interfering to grow virtue". There are third version: Kashrut, like other establishments of Judaism, must first of all ensure the submission of Jews to the Most High and protect them from dissolving among other peoples. No wonder it is often called "Wall Fencing Jewish House".
In addition to Kashrut, other food prohibitions also operate in Israel. For example, every seventh year, called "Schmita", Fields and Gardens should be left untreated to the earth rested. Use the fruits of this crop is prohibited, and the Jews have to buy vegetables and fruits grown abroad. You can not eat the fruits of any tree that mature for three years after landing. Talmud demands to separate from the grapes of the grapes tithing (Maasar) for the temple, but since it is not, this part is solemnly destroyed in the presence of rabbi. Before eating the Jews, it is necessary to pronounce various blessings (depending on the type of food), and before use of bread – to perform the ablution of hands (Netilat Poison).
Of course, Kashrut rules to observe a hundred percent difficult even in Israel, especially with tense urban life. In the conditions of time deficit, each second in Jerusalem or Tel Aviv chews the products of Fastfud, the truth prepared with the traditional rules. Here, the peat-pit filled with hummous – hot salad from Turkish pea, you can try falaphs – the same peas, only mixed with vegetables and fried in olive oil. There are in Israel and "McDonalds", But special: cutlets for hamburgers and bigmakov are not prepared from pork, but from beef and roasted on open fire. The place of our dumplings occupy falal, where "Chief dish" Many snacks are added: fried potatoes, Hacelim (eggplant puree), stew vegetables and T. D.
Interestingly, kosher food is becoming increasingly popular with non-Jews, especially in the USA and England. From eleven million Americans buying kosher products, Jews no more than one and a half million. The rest are representatives of the middle class, convinced that the kosher provides the quality and environmental purity of products. In New York, the fair of kosher products takes place annually "Kosherfest", collecting thousands of firms from dozens of countries.
In Russia, kosher food market is very small – basically it is sold in synagogues. In 2002, the only Kosher Supermarket in the country was opened in the Tryphonovskaya street for 10 thousand product items. It is clear that not all believing Jews can visit it, so our rabbis make up long lists of finished products (mostly imported), which are considered kosher even without a sign of Ekscher. Some our goods have already received an international certificate of kosher. Among them – beer "Ochakovo", Vodka "Putinka" and "our standard", pasta "Macfa" and milk of the Kolomensky Combine. In addition, airlines "Aeroflot" and "Transaero" Wound a certificate of kosher for lunches in airplanes. And this means that the traditions of Kashruta every day can adjoin an increasing number of people living in different parts of the globe.