Povawa is. Poughua

Every summer, many thousands of indigenous inhabitants of America are removed from the spaced places and begin to wrap their old ones on the speedometers "Ford" and "Bewikov" All new and new hundred miles, moving from the state to the state, from Montana in Oklahoma, from Connecticut to North Dakota, chasing the head on well-kept interstates, disturbing everything and all sorts of rules, from one picturesque tobore from composed of pickups, multicolored tourist tents and traditional Indian tents-typi to another. And the patrol policeman, with Wait Siren, the chase was for the next raw peaceful revolution, she will dorate with hand: Summer has arrived in the United States.

Word "Poughua" (or "Paula", You can transcribe in different ways) for a long time and firmly entered into spoken American language and is widely used in everyday vocabulary of US citizens of all religions, nationalities and skin shades as an ironic designation of any major (or not very) public gathering whether it is a scientific conference, trade union meeting or election rally. Nevertheless, as in the case of many other borrowings from Indian languages, the current meaning of the word has nothing to do with its initial meaning.

Europeans, according to their usual, missed Algonkinskoye "Wu" It was not even word, but the expression and literally meant "he’s sleeping", and not literally served as a peculiar respectful titlatura of the Schman. Well and "What a wedding without accordion", Is it possible to imagine a shaman without ritual dancing? Here are the inquisitive pale brothers and counted "Poughua" the general name of all representations of this kind, and then they began to refer to them in general, any aboriginal assembly not only in Algonkins, but also from other Indian tribes. In this meaning, the word and returned to the descendants of the original inhabitants of the North American continent, returned and again acquired a new one, a completely special semantic load.

So what is it, the pussy? White will answer this question without thinking, as an extreme case, referring to the exact value with the Werebster dictionary, but Indian. Indian, most likely, confidently says, nothing is not. This is not entertainment (more precisely, not only entertainment). This is not an idea of ​​fun at the idle public (at least not only for fun and not only idle). It is more than a simple tribute to the past. Trownow it. Poughua.

. From the bass crash of the giant drum, the drumpipes are about to burst, there would be no less than ten painted and discharged enthusiasts, not knowing and not in the hands of the hands, they will be swollen in it with multi-colored beater, accompanying the roar of shrill screams. However, they seem to screams only for the first few minutes as soon as your ears are getting used to the incessant acoustic strikes, you understand that hear the most real song, with a rather rhythmic and slender and not quite familiar to European hearing. Although the voices of singers and are reinforced by repeatedly delivered immediately speakers, they can not until the end to block the friendly tooling of hundreds of bells and thousands of bubrels (they are traditionally mastered from the covers twisted into the tube from cans with a snuff of tobacco) attached to the wrists, the ankles Clothes of five hundred men, women and children, joyfully and nicely covered land under the incredited drum rokat. And in the tact of the movements of dancers, the whole forest of multi-colored feathers pegs over their heads and swing. And on top of this forest, three Indians with megaphones on a wooden stage.

In the glance and especially on the hearing of a third-party observer, if, of course, such a spectacle is generally capable of at least someone, aside, it may seem that the Trinity on the Dress for some incomprehensible reasons chose the elevation for noisy and, perhaps, more publicly clarifying their complex relationships. They except that they do not rush to each other with fists, although in fact, about the following above the site in the language of Indians: "Max Spotted Bear! You are a very good person! The son of your tribe wants to make you a gift!", "Bill Rain Man! Bill Rain Man! Where are you? These blankets are prepared for you and your family, come and take them!" And the blankets go out of one hands to others, accompanied by a taching pack of pretty threatened dollar bills not the biggest advantage, of course. Already far over midnight, but it does not care for an even account of anyone in Crowe’s reservation in Montana in full swing goes.

Although the Indian dances and songs go to their roots in deep antiquity, in his today’s form, there was not a long time ago, the tradition has something about one hundred years. In order to deal with the reasons for this kind of renaissance and unprecedented popularity in recent years, about 90 percent of the entire Indian population of the United States and Canada are visited by experts, "Dusty Indian gatherings", By a member of the Shermani, American Writer and the Indian from the tribe of black-erect, we need to turn to such a serious concept as Pandeanism.

However, not everything is so difficult, and behind the loud name, as usual, hides a fairly simple essence. Best of all, it seems to us, she expressed her American scientist-ethnographer Nancy Lurie: "Pannedanism Indian movement to unity for the best adaptation to reality". It was originated in its current forms in the last quarter of the last century, when there was a cooking hobby in America "Theatrical ideas about the difficulties and dangers that lie down the brave pioneers of the Wild West, as well as the extraordinary and amazing adventures of their adventures" and "Dances of Indian Snagrai", When the people of Valil Wall look at "Indians" From the circus Barnuma and in the blink of an eye climbed tickets to performances "Indyasko-cowboys" Troupes of the famous Buffalo Bill.

As usual, the pale brothers were little worried about the differences that existed, say, between coastal algonquins and their neighboring people in the representation of a white American phrase "Real Indian" It turned out to be inextricably linked with the figure of the rider nomad from the tribes of the Great Plains. What, however, it is not surprising that the steppe tribes had the most fierce resistance to the colonists and government troops, titles "Sioux", "Teams", "Chiune" In the nineteenth century, decades did not go from the first strips of American newspapers, and the battles of the federal cavalry with Indians from Sand Creek and Little-Big Horn were entered into the history of the new world on a par with the Delevice march of Washington, the victory of the northerners with Hettesburg and the heroic defense of Alamo in Texas Mexican war.

So interest "VOSPOV" ("WOS" from English "White Anglo-Saxon Protestant" White Anglo-Sax Protestant, commodity name "Indigenous" of the white inhabitants of America, the descendants of the first waves of emigration) and their choice was quite justified. Other: The place of the bloodthirsty savage, hung by the scalps of children, women and priests, in the consciousness of the middle Yankee, unexpectedly occupied the romantic image of the Indian conductor, a faithful and a few white truth and gold kits. It should be noted that this was largely facilitated by the heroes of writers, like Karla May we have known, one time literally flooded the American book market, and with the appearance and rapid development of cinema and the whole cavalcade of the noble redheads, which came from the screens of popular Westerns. And to no matter how tribes did not belong to the characters of books and movies, protruding from under the neat hairstyles of the ears of Indians, Prairies guess without much difficulty.

Indigenous Americans did not slow down to take advantage of the new way. First, it promised them the opportunity to close a little on handicrafts in "Indian style", Shooting in all the same Westerns (I must say that the Palenitz Yugoslav Goyko Mitich in the roles of Chingachguk and Winnetu was and remains the exception of the rules) and costume ideas on the needs of rich tourists. Secondly, oddly enough, fashion for all Indian swovers on. Indian themselves. Even those of them that lived in cities began to grow long hair again, braid braids, banish their children with traditional names (from where numerous johns red bulls and Marilyn sitting clouds went) and inspire leather amulets, characteristic, again, for steppe tribes.

Of course, the fashion changed and is fleeting, but with it to the North American Indians, something more sensation has come to the North American Indians, one Indian people, breeding differences gave way to opposing everyone without exception "Redhead" All "Balenolitsa". North America Indians, from Seminolov Florida to Cree from the shores of Hudson Gulf, from Vancouver Island to Navajo South-West of the United States, understood that only united, they will be able to survive as an ethnic and maintain for future generations the invaluable cultural heritage of the indigenous people of the new world. It is quite logical that the basis of such an association was adopted by the tradition of nomadic tribes of the Great Plains. And then appeared in the pussy.

However, there were not the most accurate word, ritual and ritual dances of the century impertise, occupied a worthy place in the culture of the overwhelming majority of Indian tribes. It is enough to remember only the multi-day costumed representations of the North-West Coast, Iroquois "Dance Orla", Exquisite choreographic buildings of the Indian Pueblo. But no of these peculiar and complex rituals was destined to get the tenth of the fame and popularity that dropped out the military dancing of steppe Indians. It was them that they formed the basis of the current pussy, enriched at the expense of the elements of the great set of other Indian crops, which we are owned by a phenomenon called American researchers "New social dances".

But traditional dances are not all the time, although the temptation is to put a sign of equality between the two concepts did not escape even the compilers of such a respected edition as "Dictionary of American Heritage". This is also binding gambling, and distribution of gifts to relatives, friends and loved ones, and just the opportunity to meet with good friends who live all the rest of the year in dozens, and then hundreds of kilometers from you.

Povawa is. Poughua

"Dusty Indian gathering. " And dust thousands of dancers raise the notable. Indians joke: It’s good that we do not sweat, otherwise we would walk forever with a dirty neck. Poolwow Rotnua will confirm you any Native American. The huge, crowded Fair Crowe, the annual Poolow in Montana, mentioned already at the beginning of our story, where even the ritual phrases of the morning weeks are spread over the sleeping camp, reinforced with powerful loudspeakers, and the results of the dancers in place are recorded in the memory of a portable computer. This is one, and Quiet, almost family holidays of small reservations are quite different.

Like, for example, another Montanian pussy with a romantic name "Standing arrows", conducted annually in the town of Elmo on the picturesque shore of Lake Flathead. There are no noisy crowds, no curious citizens, only a field, tired by van, tents and indispensable typi, small covered arena and a number of plywood houses with beads selling coffee, tobacco, beads for beads and covers from tobacco cans for puments. But the alcohol on the pussy in our day you will not find almost anywhere in the Indians, there are already enough problems with alcohol, and they try to get rid of them with all their forces for at least a few days of the holiday. With violators of the instituted order are struggling with traditional methods with public ridiculous, and even they will be expelled with the Werevoisi. But orders so in Draconski strict only when it comes to drunkenness, as for all the rest. Holiday is a holiday for no wonder the organizers of one of the pussy found their duty to publicly declare: "The Organizing Committee has been consistent with itself all responsibility for the gaps between in love, the divorces of the spouses, as well as for any children who appeared subsequently". And among the regulars of the fair, Crowe there is a belief: if the marriage has undergone the test by our fair, it means that the spouses are enough for a year for a minimum. Until the next Poughu.

In general, the light dose of cheerful madness is present almost on all the progress, as she is present in the our carnival, and on Catholic carnivals on the occasion "Fat Tuesday" Mardi Gra. Probably, the atmosphere itself has similar holidays to rampant fun, dancing to fall and generous distribution of gifts. The latter is the indispensable component of any real priest, borrowed from the Indians of the North-West Coast. True, in contrast to the legendary lots, quickeys and trinkites, where it was crushed literally all the well-acquired host of the History, modern Indians behave more modest. In the end, after all, the gift itself is important, but attention rendered. It is told that a certain American journalist who participated in one of the major pool and awarded blankets, shawl and a ten-dollar banknote from the hands of the holiday manager, for a long time tried to find out what was still symbolizing the received gift. With this question, he appealed to a familiar Indian leader. The leader said: he wants you to become his friend. So, what is next? asked journalist. Become to them answered Indian.

Still, the main thing is not a distribution of gifts and not reckless goules of Indian youth. Main dancing. And among the dances, the most important so-called big output, the key event of any Poolow, the colorful parade of all its participants. Hundreds of Indians, young and old, men in headquarters from eagle feathers and women in capes made of deer skin in a proud silence in a circle, causing admiration and sincere envy of the audience. Actually, this is not a dance even a parade, a solemn procession. In one word, without a lot of way out and the progress. And then the dances actually begin: the traditional male in the image and the likeness of those most warlike dancing of Indians Prairies, a dance with bells on clothes, which was inherited by the current Indian women inherited from Zakybavyev’s meanbrakes, a dance of clothes is one of the brightest and entertaining, and many other. Their forms are slightly changed from the pussy to the Pool in Crow, they will be alone, only the main types for which competitions are consumed unchanged. And among them mentioned already traditional male and cross-bred dances.

The passion for the trowel caused a whole Cast of professionals, people who make living with the help of traditional Indian arts. And well, I must say that you earn the whole thing in the fact that the amount of prizes for the first places has grown so much over the past few years, that only dancing, local talents earn thousand fifty per year. True, here we are talking about the masters of the extra-class, such as Jonathan Windows. Former basketball player and runner, having heard the voice of Indian blood, he threw a sport, and study at a prestigious university. Since then, he has been driving on the roads. My father began to teach me to dance, as soon as I turned three years. He never told me why I needed it, yes I didn’t ask him. Now Windows fights thirty-five, and he hopes to hold out in the form of another twenty. Well, while Jonathan is full of strength, in the lack of work, he does not complain about it annually in the United States and Canada are held at 1000 different proud, and even more.

It is difficult to believe that a few decades ago "Dust Indian Squares" were almost under the ban. Power pre-warning, somehow often happens to them, seen in Indian amateur only a blatant violation of public order, leading to drunk fights and the departure of pagan rituals, but not original cultural rites. True, all attempts to stop disgraceing so have not led to the Indians already then there were extensive experience in the legal and semi-legal struggle against the authorities. Let’s say, satisfied the pussy to the day of independence on July 4. Agents of the Indian Affairs Bureau simply focused on anger, and their wards were innocently noticed that they were the same citizens of the United States and, accordingly, have the full right to celebrate the chief public holiday along with all the rest of the American people. In general, the motto of the indigenous people were and remains the words spoken on one of the trowel Dale old horn, a lawyer Crowe: "We live in a free country because we didn’t pay white for her".

And another slogan, often sounding in Indian meetings throughout the country: "We won. We are still here!" . Large drums grow incentively, in the sounds of Indian songs, the wind whistle is heard over the expanses, bright their festive outfits and rapid motion. The rhythm of the dance is not up to the rhythm, the drums are knocking everything louder and louder and suddenly stood sharply. And at the same moment, dancers freeze, under the rapid applause of enthusiastic spectators. This is all the salt of dance with the Uborats to complete the movement in accuracy with the latest tarta music, measure, frozen together with silent drums. Shernga Indian dancers is immovably standing on the stage, and it seems that these harsh bronvion people belong to some other, which has long been the past era, that these are not people even, but the characters of countless generations, which replaced each other on Earth North America. But goes a minute, the other, the applauses and admiring screams are cleaned, and from the scene on the ground, quite ordinary, normal people are descended, a little tired, a little breathing Indians. They won. They still have. And in front, they are the endless road to the pussy.

Povawa is. Poughua

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