Portugal: Lisbon

The history of the Portuguese capital has more than twenty centuries; A rare city boasts so long existence. Lisbon is located on the northern coast of the River Tejo right in front of her shift in the Atlantic Ocean – where the mouth of the river narrows, forming a deep natural port. For this attractive plot of land, the Romans, Westges, Warriors of the Arab Caliphate, were beaten, the French under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte and many other great armies; Calm has come only after World War II.

Another important factor is the location of the city in relation to the areas of seismic activity. Eurasian and African tectonic plates are brought here, which, naturally leads to earthquakes. One of the most destructive natural disasters throughout the history of mankind occurred in Lisbon. The catastrophe happened in the morning of November 1, 1755: as a result of the 9-point earthquake, about a quarter of the population died (100 thousand people in 6 minutes), and the tsunami accompanying him and the fire almost erased the city from the ground. (More – in the article "My Planet" "Tsunami, who changed the world"). Weak consolation can be considered the fact that it was after that a modern science seismology was created.

Portugal then remained rich in a colonial power, so after a few months a considerable part of the capital was reconstructed. As a result, Lisbon became a unique European capital, not haotic building: the entire historical center was created for a single plan.

New neighborhoods of the city, which began life from pure sheet, became the world’s first designs tested on seismic resistance. According to testimony of that time, a huge number of soldiers were attracted to the tests: they needed to march in unison, which recreated around the building of the building seismic activity.

However, the influence and economy of Portugal came to decline, and the restoration of the city suspended. Eyewitnesses of the beginning of the XIX century describe the destroyed structures that in the capital you could see everywhere.

Interestingly, several prominent monuments of the past, built in the style of Manuelino (Portuguese Renaissance), survived the earthquake. Among them – Tower Belen, Built in 1515-1521 in honor of the opening of Portugal path to India, or Monastery Jeronimitov (Zheronimush, 1450 g.), where, along with other famous history figures, the Great Maparent Vasco da Gama rests. Both monuments are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Portugal Lisbon

The oldest building in Lisbon is Castle of St. George (Castel de San George), however we see it in a restored form. The first fortification structure on the hill was erected around 48 before. NS., Then he was repeatedly expanded and strengthened, but the earthquake of the XVIII century reduced all the works to almost zero. In subsequent centuries, a large-scale reconstruction was conducted in the castle, and in 1910 it was declared a monument of national importance.

Aqueduct Aguash-Libris – The most famous technical structure of Lisbon, which, at the same time, is considered to be a business card of the city. Reniece of the high-altitude stone arches appeared at the beginning of the XVIII century, having solved the problem of an acute shortage of drinking water – not only in those years, but before this day. And this is also one of the few buildings that survived the natural disaster of 1755.

The majestic palaces and temples appearing after the earthquake (noticeable almost from anywhere in the city of Basilica da Esterela, the largest in Portugal Mafra Palace and other monuments) – all this makes Lisbon one of the most picturesque cities of Europe.

Portugal Lisbon

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