Pompeii alive, dead Pompeii
Modern Campania region of Italy gave the world pizza and comedy mask theater dell’arte Italian – Pulcinella, the image of a fun-filled commoner, animating effect setting. However, less than 2000 years ago in the campaign itself is not played out comedy events associated with the eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius. Reasons for the popularity of this event in popular culture until a few blockbusters filming. First, a detailed description of Pliny the Elder events (on behalf of the eruption of this type is now called the Plinian). Secondly, because of the almost completely preserved cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and Stabiae villas that have become "time capsule" – a perfect object of study for scholars and world-famous attractions.
To learn how people lived in those cities and how they died, and will be discussed in this series of articles.
Food and Drinks
To understand that the idea of eating and how eating the ancient Romans differed from ours, it is sufficient to bring the simple fact of bread.
We are all accustomed to a loaf of bread, which daily take from the shelf in the store. Every morning it is brought from bakery. Many citizens of Rome, referring to the poor and the middle strata of society, does not know this. They could themselves go to the bakery and bake bread on your own recipe. To do this, in the shop selling bread, there were special furnaces that could be rented.
By the way, the Roman bread itself was also different from the usual: he was harder (mainly due to flour and frivors of lower quality) and water absorbed water worse. However, the rigidity of such bread easily was compensated by a variety. Almost every dish could be served his kind of bread – it was even the one that ate only with oysters.
An unusual for a modern observer may seem like some dishes and food reception routine.
Romans got up early, at 6 am. Then they have breakfast (breakfast was called jentaculum). It consisted of bread (or wheat cakes) with dates and honey, which washed wine. Often, breakfast could be food remnants with dinner. Some meat with bread and cheese used on Lunch (PRANDIUM) at about 11 am. The main meal was lunch (CENA) consisting of three parts. First part, or Gustatio, – eggs, clams or meat with olives. It often accompanied Mulsum – diluted wine wine sweeten with honey. Then followed a series of dishes (FECULA), after which meat or fish was served (Caput Cenae). The Roman Elit could afford Caput Cenae in the form of a fried pig or exotic bird (ostrich or peacock). Fruits and nuts were served for dessert (Mensae Secundae).
Many Roman dishes loved the seasoning Garum sauce (Garum), which made out of small fish and fish waste with the addition of vinegar, salt or wine. He was so popular that in almost every province was his recipe, and in some he completely replaced salt.
At the time of the Roman Republic, the lunch took place for the period of modern lunch. In the year of interest – 79th. NS., That is, already at the time of the empire, – have lunch late afternoon or early in the evening. If the houses were guests, then Cena, accompanied by communication and the clock, could continue for four hours! And after lunch, it was possible to calmly carry with you the part of the dishes. The owner of this was regarded exclusively as a compliment.
Before the departure to bed, it was just a bread with fruit.
If the Roman diet is all more or less clear, the fact that the Roman poor has eaten? Of course, her nutrition was much more modest. The diet was the so-called Mediterranean triad: cereal (barley or wheat – for cereal and beer), olive oil (which ate with bread and vegetables) and grapes (for the highlight of wine, vinegar or drying in the form of raisins).
But how to satisfy the need for protein? One of the possibilities was breeding … Little rodent, Sony-shelter, in a special pot at the entrance to the dwelling.
Interiors of Roman Villas
To describe the situation of Roman houses, turn to the witness of the era, which left a cognitive and detailed story for us. "My name is serviles. I am a hereditary client. According to the ancient custom of Romans, which cannot provide themselves, are looking for a rich and powerful patron. Such for me was the Roman Patricia Pubs Virgin Attici. From early morning to get a few dinaris for life (Sportula), I go to his house. Each client strives early get his share, which is why the entrance to the villa, or the vestibulum, rolling. In the crowd. Push elbow … here I am inside.
I’m standing in a small atrium. Its walls are painted in red. Light a little, it makes his way from above through a hole in the middle of the roof. Under it on the floor-impluvius floor, he is full of water – yesterday it rained. I am following in line – only an old man in the brown tunic in front of me. Through his shoulder can be seen as in the table, the room for business meetings, the cartridge and the next client talk. Their features are unclear – rear, from the garden, called "peristilium", the sun is shining. It is said that there my cartridge holds wild birds, whose males have feathers with a blue sweat, and an extraordinary beauty of the tail diverges, like the rays of the Sun (meaning peacock, but the Romans of such a word simply did not know. – approx. Avt.). But pretty dreams: my turn. "Ave, Patrone, Ave!" Today is the cartridge in a good arms of the Spirit, he gives me a hand. After a short conversation – here it is, my day content: a bag of ringing dynamines! As generous public Virginia. "
Now thanks to the service, we know the main premises of a typical Roman villa: Atrium, tables and peristilium. It was a kind of "axis" at home. Of course, the man of his position could not see the whole interior of the estate.