Polish goning stronghold
Tradition binds the base of Krakow with the legendary prince with a krak who lived in the VI century. Prince This as if defeated the dragon, having inhabited in the cave at the foot of the Wovel Hill, and then laid the fortress on that hill. True, in other legends – and even with great details – that the citizens are obliged to get rid of the horrors of the Dragon Drainas, and the shoemaker named by the scuba, who caused the prick of the prince to destroy the beast, when all the born warriors are desperate. Vanked guy took over to defeat the dragon not by force, but a cunning. Scuba presented him with a ram stuffed with gray and resin. Dragon, the creature is coarse, the offering swallowed, and then, of course, felt the unauthorized thirst, rushed to the Wist – and drank, until he burst.
In memory of Krak, the townspeople poured one of the memorial Kurgans – four of them in the city, for each side of the world. Dragon’s bones hung over the entrance to the Cathedral. People superstitious give this installation great importance and assure that Poland stands unshakable, as long as the remains. Well, more cynical and knowledgeable in zoologies argue that it is hanging there is unknown for which Mamontov bone, mystical power, of course, not possessing.
But although there is no mysticism here, the city produces a magical impression on the arrival.
Above the cave of Dragon
In terms of old Krakow reminds Litu. On the south of the tip "Grind" Wawel is a hill on which the Royal Castle is standing. It has about the same meaning for Poland that for Russia – Moscow Kremlin. This is the stronghold of the state, received by the heroic memories, and the focus of church shrines.
Just understand this, rising to Wawel from the street of canonikov. All two-dimensional fortress curtains are completely littered with small signs with brick size. On them – the names of 6329 citizens, whose voluntary donations were bought from the Austrian government in 1905 and restored. Poland – the country is not high, and the castle was restored by almost fifty years – mainly for private funds.
At the top of Bastion Garzets Bronze Tadeush Koscus. In 1939, during the occupation, the monument was destroyed by order of the German Governor Governor, who had quartered in the Royal Castle. After the war, the Germans made a duplicate on their own initiative, but evil languages from local art historians argue that a new version of several "Connected". Previously, the hero was sitting on the elegant Polish race of Arab blood, and now under him a heavy German stallion.
Immediately behind the Royal Gate – the Cathedral of the Saints Stanislav and Vaclav – the location of the coronation and the tomb of the Polish rulers. From the first cathedral laid down in the XI century, only part of the tower of silver bells and crypt of St. Leonard have been preserved. The current built in the XIV century in the Gothic style. However, it is almost unnoticed outside, because the most revered Polish temple from all sides has grown to him with baroque adhesives.
In the midst of the spacious central nefa, the altar of the debris is located, to which the kings pinned military trophies. In particular, here in 1411 were exhibited banners of the Teutonic Order taken in the Grunwald battle. Directly behind him, closer to the church altar, the main shrine is stored on the elevation – the power of Poland’s patron, Krakow Bishop Stanislav, placed in silver cancer of thin work.
Around – Stone Sarcophages of Kings Vladislav Lokkok, Casimir the Great and Queen Jadigi. The National Pantheon serves an underground crypt of the Cathedral, where the dust of the poets of Adam Mitskevich and Juliusha Slovak, a fighter for the American and Polish freedom of Tadeusch Kostyshko and his associate, and later – Napoleonic Marshal Yuzfa understood. Yuzef Pilsudski was buried in a special mausoleum, the founder of the modern Polish state. Comrade Alexander Ulyanova, together with him I prepared an attempt on the our emperor Alexander III, and then, in 1920, already as the head of the Polish state, who chopped the attack of the Communist troops Vladimir Ulyanov, rests in a simple soldier coffin, straighteningly distinguished against the background of luxurious granite sarcophagus. Completes the series of national heroes, General Vladislav Sikorsky – In the pre-war Poland, the main competitor of Pilsudsky, headed by the Polish government in exile in Germany in 1939-1943.
But the main Beauty of Wawel, undoubtedly, Royal Castle. The first princely residence, built back in the XI century Boleslav, brave and rebuilt in the XIV century, almost without a residue it was crushed in a terrible fire of 1499. The current castle was laid around the 1550th. Works led, as in the Moscow Kremlin, the Italian masters, and over the inner decoration worked mainly German artists, in particular Hans Durer, the brother of the famous Albrecht. Today is a museum in the castle, including four sections: "Royal rest", "Treasury", "Armory" and "Lost Wawel" – Collection of archaeological materials and documents telling about the irrevocably lost parts of the castle as a result of fires, rearrangements and other cataclysms.
Wawel, of course, the place of the main state celebrations. Here on Independence Day, November 11 (in memory of the first world war, after which the first world war ended in 1918, after which an independent Polish state was restored), a military parade and a festive demonstration are held. Well, on ordinary days, the townspeople come here with pleasure. Such walks are not recommended for the first yearrs – for some reason, bad sign. But older students are desperately rumped in the hill on the hill "Mountain bikes".
And the foot of Wawel is located and a fairly fair attraction – "Dragon Cave", where visitors actually meet the monster, spewing fire. In summer, those who wanted to take pictures with him are built into the gigantic queues. The entrance is paid – a good example of Krakow ingenuity in creating sources of income practically "From nothing".
The first reliable information about Krakow left the descendants of the Spanish Jews Ibrahim Ibn Yakub, who visited these places in 965. The city seemed to him significant in size, and especially he praised the roads binding him with Prague – the largest Eastern European shopping and cultural center at the time.
Successfully sitting on the place where Vistula becomes shipping, krakov rapidly growing. In 1000, Boleslav is brave, the first of Polish princes received the royal crown and many Raddy about the Christianization of his subjects, established the Episcopian Department here. Following the Catholic missionaries, mainly from the German principalities, monastic orders moved to Krakow. The first in the 1222nd came from Prague Dominicans, and behind them – the cisteriants and Franciscans, who can now be found on the streets of the city. The industrialists and merchants, the German community of Krakow, the German community of Krakow, was reached by the beginning of the XIV century, was so influential that he even tried to summarize the king from German lands – Prince John Luxembourg.
But this idea failed. Prince Vladislav Balkiek appeared in 1311 to the city at the head of troops from the Polish and Hungarian gentry, severely equipped German burghers and established his residence in Krakow. When in the 1320th he was proclaimed by the king, coronation celebrations took place in the city for the first time. And until 1734, Polish monarchs continued to be crowned here, even after the transfer of the capital to Warsaw in 1609. Directly reason for moving the yard served as a fire at the Wawel Hill, during which the royal residence was strongly injured. However, the main reason for the transfer of the capital was the State Union between Poland and Lithuania, in 1569, according to which Krakow was on the outskirts of a huge speech compulculated. In addition, in Warsaw, Sigismund III, who also claimed the Swedish throne, was closer to his Swedish "voters". The king has achieved his own, but finally resolve controversial issues regarding the Baltic territories between the two powers, he failed – and after his death of war with Sweden resumed. The city began to grasp and decisively declined after unsuccessful for the Poland of the war in the 1660s. Krakow was besieged and looted: local gold Swedes hid 18 large bass. Restored the city is hard and long. And in the 1772th, again suffered very much during the war, which ended in the first section of Poland between Russia, Austria and Prussia. English traveler William Cox, who visited him in the 80s of the XVIII century, wrote that "Judging by the many ruins and collapsed houses, you might think that the city just survived the siege yesterday and was captured by the enemy". After the unsuccessful speech of Tadeusch Kostyshko, who was trying in 1794 to restore the unity of the Great Poland, and the final section of the Commonwealth, the city went to Prussia, but was soon transferred to Austria. Leaving, Penglishs praised the treasury of the Wawel Castle, including royal regalia, which would not long thinking in a coin. Miraculously survived only the legendary "Shcherbets" – an old sword, according to the legend who belonged to Boleslav Herbrome.
However, by the beginning of the XIX century, Krakow completely recovered, and soon he went to the mountain. The main condition of the lift began as it often happens, "will". In 1815, by the decision of the Vienna Congress of European Monarchs "Overhaul" Disturbed by Napoleonic Wars in Europe, Krakow became a free city, the center of tiny "Krakow Republic". The republic, although it was under the protector of the three powers, had its own currency and the administration, and the main thing – the Polish language had a state status here (while on Prusskiy, Austrian and our territories, he had disappointed in every way). Free city quickly became the place of attraction of all patriots, striving for the restoration of Great Poland. In February 1846, they raised an uprising, a few months brutally repressed by Austrians – not without the help of the surrounding peasants who attracted little to the restoration of the Shankhetsky liberation. On November 16, 1846, Krakow became part of the Habsburg Empire, and Wawel turned into a barracks of the Austrian troops. This, however, only strengthened the authority of the city as the main center of freedomiff, the place of development of national ideology and mythology. Vintage Krakow University – Yagellonian Academy – still served not only "Temple of science", But the forge of patriotic intelligentsia.
In 1902, preparations for the restoration of the Polish state moved to the active phase when Yuzef Pilsudsky created in Krakow under a signboard "Rifle society" Bases for training fighters of the liberation army. Immediately after the beginning of the First World War from "graduates" Society in the city was created by the first Polish Brigade, which entered into war on the side of Austria-Hungary in the hope that grateful Austrians contribute to the restoration of Poland. Polish Legion rose from the brigade soon, but, taking the territory of the whole country, the German-Austrian allies immediately sent Pilsudsky to prison. And only in the fall of 1918, after the crash of the Central European Empires, he returned to Warsaw, where he was appointed "Temporary chief" Polish state and commander-in-chief of its armed forces. Did not break the free Krakow Spirit and the World War II. Citizens and today are proud that only here, from all of Poland, a referendum fell on June 30, 1946. Prommunist temporary government, despite fantastic falsifications ("Possessing" They reached 40%, as it turned out after checking the results already conducted in 1989), it was necessary to officially recognize the refusal of most Krakow residents from socialism and "People’s Democracy".
Despite all these historical peripetics, old Krakow did not undergo radical changes. He was not seriously destroyed in the second world war and was not involved in the experiments of the communist regime, and Ros naturally and visited the highest degree delicately, retaining his appearance.
If Wawel is a symbol and the focus of the historical and mythological past Krakow, then his heart, the focus of urban life – the main market. Giant Square – almost the right square with a side of 200 meters – was laid in 1257 by order of the King of Bolevlav the shy, complained Krakow city status. Exactly in the middle of it is a graceful market building – Sukennice. Sukonny rows grew gradually and did not immediately accepted the modern appearance. Initially, there were simply two rows of shops, then in the 1300th they were suspended under the common roof, and after some time, the second tier was allowed. But in 1555, this construction burned down the ground, and then new ranks were built – already stone. They were erected by their local masters under the leadership of the Paduan Master Giovanni Moska, who decorating the construction of Italian Attik.
Cloth here do not trade for a long time. Now all the space under the vintage villages took a souvenir fair, where the characteristic Krakow crafts are sold, like jewelry from amber. And around the perimeter of the square there are restaurants and cafes for every taste and wallet.
Here, as anywhere, there is a feature of the Krakow atmosphere, and each stone is a witness of historical events. In one corner of the area, the stove on the pavement indicates the place where the Grand Master of Teutonic Order Albrecht Gogenzollern brought in 1525 the Vassal oath of the Polish king Sigismund I. And near the Lonely Tower, which remained from the burnt old town hall, a similar slab is marked by a place where the People’s Freedom of Tadeush Kostyushko swore. Here is also preserved "House under Oroall", where he started preparing the uprising. And next to him – a building where the Mnishek marina and self-stocked "Tsarevich Dimitri" – Running Moscow Monk-Viewing . Still stands on the square and the house in which the first permanent post office is located (however, then, in 1558, a regular connection was only with Venice – the main trading partner of Krakow).
But this historical Patina, covering literally, does not interfere with the townspeople comfortably exist in architectural monuments using them "By destination", and even on the new, modern way. To this day, open for visitors restaurant "Venginic". The owners, of course, were replaced, but in these most Christie Nikolai Vigilak, a member of the city magistrate, arranged an honest feast of European monarchum, gathered at the coronation of Casimir the Great. And in the so-called prince’s house, where now the bookstore, in the upper rest, they say, still visible traces of experiences of the famous Warlock Pan of Tvardovsky.
Rooms of houses on the streets – by Krakow Markov The invention is recent: they appeared only in 1882. But in the historical center of the building is still referred to in heraldic figures or decorations above the entrance. The most luxurious of the palaces on the market square – the princes of Pototsky – everything is called (not quite respectfully): "House under the sheep". By the way, the Pole titles also apply without much reverence. All these graphic and princely advantages were complained by Austrian or our emperors. Polish gentles considered themselves all smooth, not excluding the election king.
In the same principle, the best Krakow hotel is named "Under Rose". She safely takes guests, as it did in the XVI century, only comfort corresponds to the current high standards (not to be confused with the hotel "Under a white rose", Where Balzac stayed, is a much more modest institution in the new city). At the beginning of the XIX century, it was, was renamed from conjunctural considerations in Hotel de Russia – in memory of what was stopped by our emperor Alexander I in 1805. But soon after the patriotic uprising of 1846, the former name was returned.
Time in old krakow is not that stopped but slowed down. It is measured by the age of the signal, which is hourly supplied to all four sides of the light of a trumpeter from the belfry of Mariacksky Church. Melody "Heynala" (from Hungarian "morning") The tradition is broken on the seatel, in memory of the city trumpet, which, by legend, in 1241 managed to give a signal about approaching the city of Mongolian Haling, after which it was fighting enemy arrow. We began to take care of the accuracy of time only in the XIX century – and very peculiar: from 1838, the hornishness is exactly at midnight began to file a flag from the roof of the University Observatory. The then mechanical clock did not differ in great accuracy, and the townspeople trusted more sunny, and now there are many on the streets of Krakow. The most famous – and once the most reliable – on the wall of the Mariak Church.
The main city cathedral dedicated to the Mother of God, or, as they say here, "Maryatsky", strongly destroys the symmetry of the area. He is older than her and therefore does not fit into a straight angle of a square square. Finally symmetry Russed the dysfype. High "Heynalika", From the window of which the Krakow trumpeter signal gives, is crowned with gothic spire. The second – on a dozen meters below and ends with a renaissance dome. However, this difference does not disturb the building, but only gives him charm.
Maryatsky Cathedral – a living evidence of the desire of Krakow Meshracy not to hit the face to the royal cathedral on Vavel. For this and in the glory of God, the townspeople were ready for great spending. The main attraction of the Marilyatsky Cathedral is a gigantic carved altar of the work of the Nuremberg painter and Graveyard of Faith Stos – by Krakowans in 2808 Gold Florins, an amount equal to the annual urban budget. True, the master worked for conscience. Huge "fold", Created for 12 years, includes 200 figures and more than 2000 carved parts. During the work, the German cutter was completely impaired and even became referred to as the local manner of Vite.
The altar of the germ, the Germans during the Second World War were taken to Nuremberg, where he had been found after hard. And on his returning to Krakow, the citizens had to surrender to a complex restoration that took the whole three years. So on its rightful place in Maryatsky Cathedral Altar returned only in 1957.
In January 1945, vintage krakow miraculously escaped full destruction. The German command suggested to minister the city and the Wovel castle to produce an explosion at the moment when Soviet troops will occupy the city. The plan was somvored largely due to the efforts of Soviet sabotage-intelligence groups. One of them, who was commanded by Alexey Botian, eliminated the largest warehouse of ammunition intended for the destruction of Krakow, in the castle of Novy-Sonch. A group of captain Eugene Bereznyak managed to seize the German Major engineer, who was directly related to mining and was able to draw a plan, which was transferred to the upcoming Soviet troops, who managed to block the villains in a timely manner "Switter". This story has gained wide fame thanks to a television film popular in the 1970s "Major Vorki" According to Julian Semenov’s scenario, admitted to secret archives. However, both surviving intelligence officers recognize that the image of the Major of the Vortex is collective, which in addition to them in the vicinity of the city there are several more sabotage groups, and that "Main Savior Krakow – Soviet soldiers".
By holy places
Compact old Krakow – an ideal place for hiking. It is all placed inside the ring, which formed from the XV century city walls, and after their demolition in the 30s of the XIX century – boulevards broken in their place.
Only the northern part of the walls with the towers, carpenters and carpenters remained from the former urban fortification. The names of the Tower workshops were because the part of the wall, which they had to defend in the event of an enemy, was fixed behind each craft guild. This part of the fortifications remained, despite the protests of Austrian engineers, at the insistence of a well-known physician, Professor Radvan, who proved that she reliably tightened the city from "Northern winds, caller fluids". Surval I "barbican" – Round fortifications in front of the Florian gate, built in 1499. Krakowan is called Barbakan "Pan", And it would be necessary to be more respectfully – the construction of this type, so well-preserved to the present day, can be counted on the fingers, and Krakow instance is one of the best. Urban walls now seem low, but at the time of construction, the level of land was two meters below – "Cultural layer" Naros.
The total length of the boulevard rings – "Platters" – less than three kilometers, and across the old town can cross the business step in twenty minutes. But this is not worth doing this. Here you should be wandered slowly, and it is better to spend on this occupation for several days, so as not to miss curious historical and cultural monuments that this tiny space is so-tightly tight.
For example, the cathedral of the Franciscan monastery, rightly considered the most beautiful in the city and especially famous for stained glass artist-modernist Stanislav Vyshpyansky.
From here, it is possible not to rush to the rolling pin, in the past – a cape, outstanding in Vistula, and now part of the area of Kazimierzh, where, according to legend, was in 1079th executed and dismembered by the main intercessor of the Earth of the Polish St. Stanislav. Although it is more likely that the saint executed on Bavle, immediately after his incomprehensible quarrel with the king. However, according to tradition, it is a place for the Vistula.
And since you went to "by holy places", it will certainly be worth visiting those of them that are associated with the name of Pope John Paul II – without them the meaning and filling "Polish fee" will not be understood. Honoring dad is the subject of adoration in the whole Poland, but especially read it in Krakow, where he started his career with an ordinary priest, and later served as a bishop. It will not be a great exaggeration to consider John Paul’s godfather of Polish independence, since the election in 1978 Pontifik Pole significantly strengthened the spirit of opponents of the communist regime. The main place to worship Pope is the Bishop Palace. Here on November 1, 1946, the young poet Karol Putyatul was ordained to the spiritual San to the then Krakow Bishop Adam Savega. Here he later lived after becoming a bishop himself, and here he stayed when visiting Krakow, already being dad. Hundreds of candles blackmail are lit in the opening opposite the palace, from the window of which the blessing shepher is watched on the city from the photoportist.
The next item of the route is the Cathedral of St. Florian. Here the relics of the saint, beaten by King Vladislav II Yaghello at the commandress of the Crusaders in the Grunwald battle. According to legend, the wills who pulled the wagon on which the ark was with the relics were stopped at this place and did not want to move further. But numerous praying in this temple attracts not the memory of the ancient miracle, but the fact that here in 1949-1951 served the Parish priest Young Karol Putyla.
Those who want to penetrate this cult deeper, special "Papal Train" (On numerous monitors in the wagons continuously, the documentary film is continuously broadcasting and excerpts from his sermons) will take place to the motherland of the nationwide-native shepherd into the tiny town of Wadovice. Here the traveler will show a curious exposition, mainly from photos and some personal items of the future, placed in the walls of the apartment, where his family removed two tiny rooms. The visitor will find out in surprise that in its tastes poet and theater Karol Vickylah was an exemplary intelligent sixteenth: he was fond of catering hiking and alpine skiing. And here should certainly try "Kremykka Papeetsky". Once, having arrived at the homeland on top of glory, the dad has been mentioned that he dreams of trying those wondrous cakes, which in times of his childhood was sold in confectionery opposite school. Production has been revived immediately. And now Sale "Papal cakes" Makes up for a small Wadovice a good profitable article.
From Krakowsky "Pantheon"
Jan Dlugosh (1415-1480), Krakow canonik and diplomat, teacher of children King Casimir IV, became famous for compiling "Poland’s stories" – The best Polish medieval chronicle in Latin, brought to 1480. His house is still. And the legend is connected with him, as if there was, according to custom, in the bath Lithuanian Prince Yagailo before the engagement with the Queen Jutyig, and Polish state men spy into the crack – in the hope of understanding whether the prince is ready to continue.
Pan Tvardovsky – Polish version of Fausta – by legend, lived in Krakow in the XVI century. Here, on the mountain of the Crosionke, he concluded a contract with the devil, promising an unclean soul in exchange for magic art, in particular, the ability to fly. Subsequently, the tricky Tvardovsky escaped the Geenna of the Fiery, the sneake of the demon who came for his soul, singing Psalms. But doomed to fly there and here between the sky and the earth to the most terrible court.
Tadeush Kostyutko (1746-1817), Polish gentry, born in Volyn, was educated in the monastery school, and then in the Paris Military School. By combat glory, he covered his name, fighting on the side of American colonists who rebel against the British metropolis. The victory of the Americans in the decisive battle under Saratogue in 1777 was in many ways his merit. On March 24, 1794, at the Central Krakow Square, he announced the beginning of the liberation uprising, which should have led to the restoration of the Great Poland, divided in 1772-M neighboring empires. As commander-in-chief, Kostysheko sought to give the rebellion of the national character and attract the peasant to the case, which promised freedom – the truth, unsuccessfully. After suppressing the uprising, he was concluded in the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, but already in 1796 he was released by the command of Paul I, pardoning all prisoners of Poles. Kostysheko died in Switzerland, still dreaming about Great Poland.
Prince Adam (1770-1861) In the young years, the closest friend of the our emperor Alexander I and even entered the famous "Neglass Committee", Where the bold plans of our reforms were discussed, providing for freedoms and Poland. Plans did not come true, and during the Polish uprising of 1830-1831, Prince headed the revolutionary national government. After the defeat of the uprising, he lived in Paris, where he was proclaimed "Polish king De Facto". There, he managed to take out a luxurious collection of paintings and items of the old days, who collected with great knowledge of the case, taking the St. Petersburg Hermitage (the beginning of the collection, however, put his Mother Princess Isabella – a collector of Polish antiquities). Son His, Prince Vladislav (1828-1894), In all, the father’s case continued and, living in Paris, was during the Polish uprising of 1863-1864 by the main diplomatic agent of the revolutionary government. In 1876, the prince moved to Krakow, where he established the museum and art gallery on the basis of the father’s assembly in the building of the former arsenal.
Jan Mateyko (1838-1893), The largest Polish Romantic Artist, Krakow’s native, a lot of reigning native city. With youth, experiencing craving for the details of historical life, he continuously sketched them, and later "History of Polish costume". When Mateyo was invited to make sketches at the opening of royal sarcophagues, he showed these outlines to his student Stanislav Vyspyansky, who made on them for the Wawel Cathedral of the stained glass instead of the lost ancients. However, the then Krakow bishop found the stained-glass windows and did not wish to see them in the church. Now they are exhibited in a special pavilion on Grodskaya Street.
Portrait of Krakow will be incomplete, if you do not mention two historical areas, absolutely dropping out of the common urban tonality. Once-founded in 1335 casimir the great as a separate city, Kazimezh has long become the Krakow quarter. But completely special kind. At the end of the XV century, all city Jews were evicted here on the command of King Yana Albrecht. And since the Jews amounted to a third of the Krakow population at a time, then as a result, a whole town who lives strictly on the Talmuda and the rabbis and elders arose. Even architecturally, many casinage streets are similar not so much on European Krakow, how many to the Middle Eastern cities, where the neighbors greet across the street, standing on the balconies. True, the central highway of the Jewish quarter is broad – on the contrary, corresponds to his name so much that, rather, it looks like an elongated area. Wide rests in the old synagogue, built by fizz from Prague by Jews after the pogrom 1389. Now there is a museum dedicated to the history of the Jewish community.
The progress of enlightenment and tolerance seemed irreversible in the XIX century. Restrictive laws prohibiting Jews to settle in Stary Krakow, were canceled in 1860. At the beginning of the next century, the Jews have already made up a third of the city council, and in 1905 one of the honorable adherents of Moiseeva law even took the post of deputy burgomaster.
Everything turned over in 1939. German occupying authorities beat everyone who did not have time to escape from the city of Jews in "ghetto" In the zarekaya district of the steering, and then to the concentration camp in Plasetsov (now – the Hetto Heroes Square). In March 1943 his inhabitants shot.
Only some managed to escape thanks to the tricks of the German Entrepreneur Oscar Schindler, who presented by the occupying authorities a list of ghetto workers allegedly necessary for his factory. This story has gained wide fame after the famous film Stephen Spielberg.
Today, the museum life of a small community is focused mainly in the synagogue of Iuduev progressors on honey street, where every summer is a festival of Jewish culture. And directly opposite the temple – cafe "Propaganda", with advertising which good smiling Leonid Brezhnev and Fidel Castro. As if referring to another area, which is as sharply falling out of the general appearance of Krakow and can also be considered "City in the city", – New hut.
In 1949, the prommunist authorities decided to solve the problem of an uncomfortable "free" cities, radically changing his social appearance. So on the distant outskirts of Krakow grew by the metallurgical plant – "Giant Socialist Industry", Despite the fact that neither ore, nor coal or even consumers of metal observed nearby. The proletarians at the plant were overwhelmed from all over Poland. It was assumed that the new factory district, gradually raging, absorbs the old Krakow. The plan of the city was argued in the USSR, right up to the name of the streets. Alley of Lenin and Alley of the October Revolution were to be interspersed on the central square. Dark gray five-story buildings, prevailing in the area, have a good acquaintance of many our residents like factory barracks. The oppressive impression of the gloomy suburb of the motley and cheerful Krakow is not bad and the film Andrzej Waida "Man from marble", who starred in new hut.
I collapsed this project as the most unexpected for the authority. According to the executive plan in a huge "The city of young" There was no single church. But the Polish worker, yesterday’s peasant, did not think the Sunday day without mass. After the twenty-year-old struggle against the authorities, the construction permission was received, and in 1977, the temple was consecrated in New Hutu, built on the project Wojca Petrzhik. And in the struggle for the church, the new working movement was rallied and dried out, and in the 1980s New Hut was already one of the optics of anti-communist "Solidarity". Influence the gloomy appearance of the new Huti Krakowan not in the power, but try to change at least her spirit. For example, the former central square now carries the name of Ronald Reagan.
Wovel Hill, according to "Signs" People attract people due to special wonderful properties. It seems to be one of "chakra" Our planet. That is, such a place where "Energy currents of land" go to the surface and rushed into the universe. Similar chakras, as they say, are in Delphi, Jerusalem, Rome and Delhi. The trouble is only that to indicate exactly where this energy is getting radiating, Krakowan cannot: at least three points of a small wavel claim this role.
So all this or not, but the city aura has long attracted people creative, and externally unhurried, unsatulted Krakow far aheads and ahead of other Polish city intensity of intellectual and artistic life.
In 1364, the Academy was founded here for the University of Bologna – the first institution in Eastern Europe, where the focus was paid to the preparation of lawyers. And after half a century, Vladislav Yagellon transformed this institution to a full-fledged University of Paris. Since then, the Yagellonian Academy was famous for one of the largest scientific centers of Europe, where scientists were taught by the first magnitude (in particular, Nikolai Copernicus). Now, as before, the student town – the state in the state – lives according to its own laws on the Phathnskaya Street. Only now NAD "Shinosle" Three high-rise dormitories rise quarter: "Olympus", "Acropolis" and "Babylon".
In the 1960s, Krakow University, continuing the traditions of his Parisian Preview, was the center of Student University and Protest. The monument of those times – however, completely alive – serves a jazz club "Under jammyrai", Where was born very valued by the connoisseurs of Polish jazz. And today, students who are almost the fifth of the population of the city are actively involved in its cultural life. Especially popular, even outside Poland, two annually held festival: in the spring – student pop, and in October – a song.
The care of arts is also a long-time Krakow custom. The first poetic tournament was held here in 1518 on the occasion of the marriage of the King of the Sigismund of the Old and Bona Sforgets. In addition to local lipellets, one and a half dozens of poets from Italy, Germany and Switzerland took part in it. Later, Krakow served as a source of inspiration to many writers, in particular both Polish laureates of the Nobel Prize in literature – Cheswa Millah and Volweave Shimborsk. Here I lived most of my life and died honorary citizen of the city Stanislav Lem.
In Krakow, is one of the best picturesque assemblies in the world. In the spacious halls of the former Arsenal near the Florian gate, the Museum of Prince Charters. Pictures collected mostly Prince Adam, in the 1830s he headed uprising, being the head of the revolutionary national government. After the defeat of the uprising, Prince Adam fled with a collection to Paris, but in the end she was returned to Poland by the efforts of his heir Vladislav Chartorovsky and since 1879 was put up for a public review. Among the treasures of the gallery – the portrait of the Church of Holerani, Leonardo da Vinci, is better known as "Lady with Mornostate" (Biologists, however, know the ferret in this animal), and "Landscape with good samaritan" Rembrandt. Third Pearl Collection – Rafaelevsky "Portrait of a young man" – disappeared without a trace during World War II.
However, Krakow has always been not only the keeper of traditions, but also active promoter of the new. Here in 1661 the first Polish newspaper was published – "Polish Mercury", And in 1912, the first Polish car was assembled. In the Krakow City Theater, an old building, in 1896, the first in the Polish history of Kinosteans took place, and in 1907 the first in Poland was opened here – a cinema – "Circus Edison". In Krakow, for the first time in the country, they found a warm welcome of the work of artists who developed a local style of style "Modern", or "Secession" (on behalf of the Vienna Mug "Secession"). And in 2002, the architect Witold Tsetsevich built by Architect, John Paul II, the temple of God’s Mercy in Lazhevniki, architecturally new for Europe, and not only for its eastern part.
It is not surprising that in 2000 the city received status "The cultural capital of Europe". Krakow annually proves the justice of its title: there are 13 theaters and 48 museums in the city, in addition to permanent expositions, temporary exhibitions of international importance are often arranged.
Historical monuments, masterpieces of art, technical innovations, concerts and festivals … Perhaps the only thing that cannot be discussed in Krakow is "Krakow" sausage. No, in fact, the traditions of Staropolian cuisine here are crucified. Go, for example, on the main market in a tiny zucchini "Under the sun" and taste the hot local soup "Burgue". Right not regret. There are many excellent sausages. But this is the low-alone Soviet product, which was called something called "Krakow", There is no way in the city and it has never been. Local residents, perhaps, would be very offended if they were presented by this product.