Poetic ring Mashhad
The sacred city of Mashhad is a place of mass pilgrimage, something like Shiite Mecca. Here is the tomb of the eighth Shiite prophet cuts, died in 818. It is less known that the ancient Iranian city and poetic Mecca. Near Holy Gradors erected the tombs above the graves of the cornea of the poetry of the East – Firdusi and Omar Khayama.
In these places, I dreamed of visiting Sergey Yesenin, who had a lot of inspired lines that did not see them.
Blue Motherland Firdsi,
You can’t, the memory is bothered,
Forget about gentle urus
And eyes thoughtfully simple.
The names of Firdoysi and Omar Khayam knows each. Where few people outside Iran heard about Sheikh Lockman-Baba, an outstanding narrator, who lived in the X century. With a visit to his mausoleum, we will start a journey through the poetic ring, hailing Meshad.
Town Serachs is located 185 kilometers east of Mashhad, near the Iranian-Turkmen border. Once here it was possible to get only with caravans moving along the great Silk Road. In the middle of the 20th century, a narrow primer was led to Serroas, and today – a highway highway. Parallel "Autobahn" A new canvas of the railroad connecting Iran with the country of Turkmenbashi. So from Meshad to Serachs and back can be turned in one day.
Autostation is located on the western outskirts. If it’s from here to move to the center, without turning anywhere, then half an hour can be fused through the whole sierah, the town is simple and simple. On the eastern outskirts of a turquoise dome of Friday Mosque. I ask the gatekeeper: "Where Lockman Baba is buried?" He says his hand – for the outskirts and left.
10 minutes walk – no signs of mausoleum. I clarify the path at the motorcyclist, and the one, from the latitude of the soul, proposes to throw a lonely wanderer right to the tag of the narrator. Five minutes away with the breeze, and now in a clean field you can see a bold structure, remotely resembling the Pisa Tower of the period "decline".
When decorating the tomb, neither gold nor silver. Medieval Mistika distinguished modesty. "He prayed to Allah to deprive his mind, so as to indulge in the adoration of God without interference, – the saint life says. – Allah won his prayers and fulfilled the request".
Local veneers of the narrator Tkut for him Little mats and hang them on the walls. On them – the rarest case for Islam – sometimes there are an alleged face of the Prophet Mohammed with a beard and a dark turban on the head, very similar to those who are in our days of Imam.
The field on which lonely snones the mausoleum erected in the XIV century, unpaved almost to its most. In Serhas "land question" Tied to Mashuhad: Most of the local land plots have long been "holy hail". During the reign of the last Shah, an agrarian reform was carried out, in which most landlords were allocated to the majority of landlords previously belonging to the largest landowners of the country. However, Shah did not solve the same radically to do with vacufted lands – put on the communities in the mosques own. And yet as a result of reform "The Holy See" Loose thousands of hectares of land located around Serachs.
The rulers who came to power after the Islamic Revolution did not be revised by land polished, carried out by overthrown Shah. However, the clergy in Serachs, despite the fact that Fellakhov supported the parliamentary commission arriving from Tehran, still demands a refund of selected lands.
While I went around the mausoleum in a circle and photographed the ruins, a motorcyclist turned out to be patiently waiting. The courtesy of my voluntary guide, who spoke a bit in English, did not know the borders – he volunteered to spend me to the bus station. Trying to thank him, I took a bill with a portrait of Ayatollah Homeney. But my attempt was stopped. Reeding the eyes to the sky, the teacher is empty: "All grace – from God!" Do me argue? I cordially say goodbye to the owner "Iron horse" And I sit on the bus returning to Mashhad. Tomorrow in the morning I will go on a visit to Firdosi.
Place Tus, where his remains rest, is located 23 kilometers north of Mashhad. Getting to the tus is not labor. Minibuses go there every half hour from Mashhad Square Shohad and bring passengers straight to the author’s mausoleum "Shakhname" ("Books kings"). In this famous poem in poetic form, the oldest history of Iran is set forth. Creating it, Firdusi used that form of the Persian language (Farsi), which has been preserved to this day.
Peel the walls of painted palaces
From hot rays and rains of pouring,
But song castle erected by me,
Neither vortex nor thunderstorms nor.
And after all came true! Many water has flowed, the rulers came and left, the cities were built and destroyed, but the greatest creation of Firdosi, the work of his life remained unshakable. That’s just he did not bring the author or wealth, nor honors.
Abu-L-Qasim Firdusi was born in the vicinity of Tus between 934 and 941 in the family of a rich aristocrat-landowner. In the 10th century, the Persia of the Rules of Sultan-Sunnit Mahmoud, who heard the patron saint of science and artist. Once in the Gazni, the capital of the state, a stranger appeared in the Sultan Palace. He said he writes the poem "Shakhname", in which the language of poetry wants to tell the story of the great people of Persia from ancient times.
Court pits jealously perceived this statement and decided to post a self-chapted stranger. Mahmud’s favoro Poet Unsuri said the poetic string, two of his fells added more on the line. Now according to the rules of poetic competitions, quadruses should have completed a stranger’s own line. The level of craftsmanship of the court poets was high, and everyone was waiting for him to be confused. However, to universal amazement, he was so skillfully and originally crowned the topic that Unsuri and his congratulations on Calam (Peru) understood: the great poet before them.
He was presented to Sultan, and Mahmoud said that he received a paradise pleasure from his essay. So the world recognized the poet firdowni. Vladyka approved his idea to write "Book of kings" and promised for each written beit (two hundred) to pay for a gold coin.
Long thirty years worked firdowni over his poem. He summarized the huge arch of Persian folklore, and the figures of Persian rulers and heroes placed in the center of the narration – from time "Creation of the world" up to days not so long. Having completed the work, he came to the capital and handed his creation, which consisted of 60,000 Bates, Sultan, to which it was dedicated to.
But the court jeques managed to be told by the Vladyka, which makes no sense to describe the feats of the dead people when Sultan’s troops are sulder. Shah listened to them and changed the promised fee. Instead of the gold coin, he commanded to pay each beat with silver dirhem, that is, twenty times less than the agreed.
The insulted firdowni divided silver between the tea bag and the messenger who gave him this money. And then he wrote acute satire to Sultan Makhmuda, in which he was exposed to his low origin, which explained the non-resident actions of the ruler. After that, the poet had to escape from the country, fleeing the Sultan’s Wrath.
Many years later, returning home from a hike to India, Mahmoud accidentally heard quarters: "Kohl muster will be your answer, I say to everyone in then "Laying the closure of my afraciyb on Maidan". Sultan liked the whiskers, and he asked who wrote this chased verse, multiplying courage? Vizier Katib replied: "Unfortunate Abu-Locid Firdusi, who Corpel thirty grave years over his "Shakhname", But never received for the work of a decent award".
Here Mahmoud finally remembered how he had a bad job with the author of great creation and decided to correct the mistake – sent the poet the precious gifts by 60 thousand dinars.
When a caravan with rapidly "fee" Reached Tus, and camels entered Rudbar’s gate, in the other end of the city from the gate of Razan, the body of the poet was carried out to betray him. Local clergymen were forbidden to bury firdowni in the Muslim cemetery: they considered his poem to be free. Out of the city gates grew a large garden owned by FirdoSi. In it and buried him.
Dar Sultan was delivered to the daughter of the poet, which wealth was also nothing, and she ordered to build a stony house on the path between Nisapur and Merv. Nowadays, visit the bridge, who also built a poet’s daughter for money received for "Shakhname". Restricted to the ungratefulness of the ruler, it neither penny did not spend on his own needs.
Park, where there is a tombstone monument to Firdawi, located in the center of Tus. The majestic monument over his grave was erected by the Pehlev dynasty in 1933, on the eve of the 1000th anniversary of the death of Firdosi. The tombstone never runs out the stream of admirers of the Great Poet from all over Iran.
In Chayhan, at the foot of the Monument of Firdoysi there will always be any connoisseur of antiquity, which will tell you the story of a thousand years ago, exactly, it happened yesterday and seem to be a conflict between the authorities and the modern writer. Especially many pilgrims are going here in the afternoon, when the sun illuminates the memorial so accurately, that we just have time to click the camera.
In its length "Shakhname" seven times bigger by Homer "Oriada", than in Iran are very proud. Creation of FirdoSi – Poem is truly national. It is difficult to find the Iranian who does not know at least a few stuff from her by heart, and many can read hundreds of lines.
Over the centuries, the great poem illustrated hundreds of artists. At the beginning of the 20th century in Europe and America there was a great interest in the Persian book schedule. Museums, libraries, private collectors launched a real hunt for east miniatures. This fashion often provoked barbaric attitude to the texts. If the auction did not manage to sell all the manuscript, the sellers were ready to extract individual sheets with miniatures. A pair of miniatures sometimes left for the same price as the manuscript containing hundreds of drawings. So miniatures illustrating "Shakhname", scattered around the world.
In 2002, the project was approved in Cambridge "Shahnama" ("Shakhname"). It is designed for five years and financed by the British Academy of Sciences. Task – Creating a computer database covering the whole marasying of illustrations to the Pomexi Poem. The ultimate goal is to place this artistic wealth on the Internet, on a free site so that electronic copies of Persian miniatures stored in many museums of the world have been available to everyone.
The scientific team, uniting orientalists from the countries, selected more than 6000 illustrations from state museums and libraries of 35 states. The British manuscript collection has already been processed, is fully ready German, partly – American, in the completion stage – our.
The most large collection of manuscripts in our country "Shakhname" – Whole 14 – is located in the Public Library of St. Petersburg (now – our National Library). And each of them is a masterpiece, each – its own story. Here are two examples. One of the named manuscripts brought from Tehran to Petersburg as part of a whole collection of Prince Dolgoruky, the former our ambassador in Persia in 1845-1854. He kept her at home and with pride demonstrated familiar. When the princess needed money to the dowry daughter, the entire handwritten collection was purchased from him for a government account and transferred to the Imperial Public Library. And the other manuscript from the same fourteen is considered to be a record holder of our collections: in it 192 miniatures.
However, our trace of the poetic ring has not yet completed. In a kilometer south of the grave of Firdoki, another memorial erected in the XIV century. In everyday life, it is called the Mausoleum Garun Al-Rashid, although it is known that this legendary ruler was buried in Mashhared, near the graves of Imam cuts.
There are different versions about whose memory was immortalized by the construction of this construction. One of them is associated with the name of the famous Mystic Gazali, born in Tus in 1058. He was the pride of the Baghdad Theological School, lived herger in Damascus, made a pilgrimage to Mecca and finally returned to his native land to spread the light of knowledge among his people. After the death of gazali, which is called "Saint Augustine Islam", In his honor it was decided to erect the pink stone memorial height in four floors, crowned with a dome.
Before you say goodbye to the Tus, you can go out for the Occolic and stroll along the ancient global wall that defended the town from raids. But at the same time it is necessary not to miss the last bus to Mashhad. There are no hotels in the TUS, and if you get out, you will have "go clubbing" night in the open sky.
Nichapur city lies 114 kilometers west of Meshad. Founded in the era of the Board of Seljuk (1051-1220), he over time became a major cultural center of Horasan and was his capital for some time. White dishes fabricated here, bordered by Arabic, decorate the exposition of the Louvre and Museums of New York. These samples of Irano-Islamic art are striking with their simplicity and grace.
Nishapur fell to the share of a large test during the Mongolian invasion, which became something like a natural disaster for Muslim nations. Arab historian Ibn Al-Atira, who died in 1234, writes that for several years she did not even want to mention this event, so terrible that he could not talk about him. When the gift of speech back to him returned, Ibn al-Atih called the invasion of the Mongols "the greatest catastrophe and the most terrible disaster, ever comprehended humanity".
It would seem that all these horrors remained in the distant past, and the most terrible pages of history have long been inverted. However, in Nijapur, as in many other cities of Iran, the tragic events of the recent past are fresh in memory. On the cemetery of martyrs in Nijapur of four hundred and the graves of young people killed during the Iranian Iraq war 1980-1988. They are located long dense rows.
On each grave, a small aluminum monument with a glazed niche. Behind the glass – the photo of the murdered, most often very young, decorated with artificial flowers and fruits. Sometimes there is a miniature quran nearby, the image of Imam Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed and the founder of the Shiite branch of Islam. It is believed that during the Iran-Iraq war, 350 thousand Iranians died. This is according to official data. And on unofficial – about a million. Humanity is extremely poorly studied in the history lessons.
Tourists in this gloomy place almost never happen. Excursion buses bring them directly to the gravestone monument to Omar Khayam (about 1040-1123), which went down in history as a poet of fun and wines.
Initially, a modest tombstone was arranged above the grave of Khayam. During the Mongolian invasion, it was completely destroyed. It began to restore it in the era of thimurids (1380-1502), and finished under Sefevids (1502-1722). The current memorial is something like a grott, laid out with color tiles from faience. This monument was built in 1934, the same primer family. The Shahny Yard tried to keep up with Europe, and there just at this time there was a fashion for mischievous and wise quitters of the Iranian poet. The last time the monument was restored in 1962-65.
Creativity Omar Khayam paradoxical. His character of faith is embodied in verses: "With that, whose Stan Cyparis, and the mouth – as if lalve, the Garden of Love was able and filled with a glass". But what about Islamic poinitanism with its strict ban of wine? Local Khodzhatolieslam (Religious San in Iran) proves that in the poems of Khayama it is not about natural wine, but about mystical. Therefore, nothing offensive for Muslim in his poetry. Exactly the same interpretation of the Creativity of the Owl Poet tried to impose readers and ten centuries ago. But not too succeeded.
I wonder if the poet would agree with such a look? Would condemn himself for the deviation from "General Line"? Let me allow myself such a fantastic assumption: Omar Khayam went on a compromise like Galilean, but remained with his opinion. And then, from under his pen, approximately such lines could come out: "Don’t drink, but so live, as if I lived when I drank!" Joke.