Podgorica (Podgorica) – The largest city in Montenegro, located 32 km north-east of the official capital of Cetina,. Population – 150 977 people (2011).
Their name Podgorica is obliged to several hills towering in its historic center, the largest of which is called «Goritsa».
In accordance with the Montenegro Constitution, the official capital is Cetina, however, most government agencies, including the government and parliament, are in Podgorica, which is determined by the country’s Constitution as "the main city".
In addition, the city is the economy and industrial center of Montenegro, as well as an important transport hub.
The typical European capital Podgorica will not call, but this city is worth a visit because of his unique atmosphere and an amazing mixing of architectural styles reflecting the rapid history of the city and the country as a whole.
For 400 years of Ottoman rule in Podgorica, many buildings of Ottoman architecture were built. The oldest parts of the city, Stara-Varos and Draca, a bright example – here you can see the mosques, the hour tower and narrow winding streets.
When Podgorica entered Montenegro, the city center moved to the other side of the Ribnitsa River, where they began to build wide streets intersecting with direct angles, and European-style buildings.
During World War II, Podgorica was completely destroyed. After liberation, the construction of the city of "faceless boxes" in the style of Soviet architecture began.
Since the mid-1990s, stormy construction began in Podgorica, actively changing the appearance of the city, new squares and parks appeared.
The first settlement on the site of modern Podgorica was founded in the Stone Age. BC, Illyrian tribes lived here, and then these lands won the Romans. They founded a city called Birziminium (Birziminium).
Since the foundation, the city was an intersection of important trade routes and was located in a fertile valley with a favorable climate, relatively close to the scandads of the lake and the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
In the V century, the Slavic tribes came here and settled. They founded their state, fought with Byzantium and built a new city, which was called on the river, on the shores of which stood – Ribnica. For the first time, this name is mentioned during the reign of the Serbian royal dynasty of the neman. The importance of the city was determined by its location on the trading path to the Adriatic Sea and below – to the countries of the West.
The name of Podgorica is first mentioned in 1326 in the judicial documents of the archive. The city was rich, as trade was carried out through him between Dubrovnik and Serbia, in those days a very lively.
Ottoman occupation Podgorica in 1474 stopped the development of the city. Turks built a large fortress here – the main fortification from which war with Chernogorsk clans were conducted. The fortified city with towers, walls and gates allowed the Turks to withstand permanent attacks of Montenegrins. In 1864, Podgorica became the administrative center of Vilayet Ishkodra called Bogurtlen (in Turkish this word means «blueberry»). The city was also known under the Albanian name Burgurice.
In 1878, the independence of Montenegro as the sovereign principality was recognized as a decision of the Berlin Congress, and Podgorica became part of a new country. It was the end of the four centuries of the Ottoman rule and the beginning of a new era in the history of the city and the whole Montenegro.
During World War II, Podgorica was sheproof over 70 times and was destroyed to the ground. More than 4100 inhabitants died. December 19, 1944 the city was released.
On July 13, 1946, under the new name Titograd (in honor of Marshal Tito), the city became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro. After that, the city completely transformed. Modern roads and airport were built.
On April 2, 1992, the city was returned by the historical name of Podgorica.
After finding Montenegro independence in 2006, the title of the capital again passed to Cetina, but at the same time most government agencies remained in Podgorica.
Today in Montenegro two capitals. The official and cultural capital of Cetina, in which the President and Metropolitan of the country live, wearing the title "Prizhestonian", and the actual, business and political capital of Podgorica is called "Main Highel".
Climate in Podgorica – Mediterranean, with hot, dry summer and moderately cold winter. Snow in Podgorica almost never happens.
The average temperature in the summer months +24. +29 °C, in the winter months +9. +12 ° C.
12 km south of Podgorica there is an international airport – the largest in Montenegro (one of two in the country).
From here, regular and charter flights are flying to many cities in Europe, including Moscow.
The main European highways passing through Podgorica:
- Northern direction (E65, E80) – in Serbia and further to the countries of Central Europe;
- Western direction (E762) – in Bosnia and further to Western European countries;
- Southern direction (E65, E80) – to the coast of the Adriatic Sea;
- Eastern direction (E762) – in Albania.
Recently built on modern European standards tunnel «Most» (4.2 km) significantly reduces the road to the bar.
Along the highway Podgorica – Cetina is located the main in Montenegro platform for the sale of used cars. In the city’s city on the highway Podgorica – Niksich built car dealerships of major European manufacturers. Podgorica’s track – Bar repletes by merchants to agricultural products from nearby fields (watermelons, grapes, figs). Along the highway Podgorica – Shkoder broken vineyards.
Podgorica – Main Railway Knot Montenegro. Through it:
- Railway line Belgrade – bar (the largest passengers and tuning of cargo transported);
- Podgorica Railway Branch – Niksich (Passenger communication is scheduled for discovery in 2009. after reconstruction and electrification of the whole line);
- Podgorica railway branch – Shkoder (the only railway connecting the neighboring Albania with the rest of the world, is not in recently used).
Public transport in the city is represented by buses and taxis.
In Podgorica, few historical and cultural attractions. It is worth walking through the narrow streets of the Old Town («Stara Varoš») where you can see a few mosques, the clock tower and feel the atmosphere of this Turkish town.
One of the attractions of the city is the Montenegrin National Theater, which is one of the most beautiful buildings in the city. His building was built in 1969. However, in 1989 the theater completely burned down and was fully restored in 1997.