Plovdiv (Plovdiv) – City in the southern part of Bulgaria, located 148 km from Sofia and 263 km from Burgas. This is the second population, square and value of the city after the capital. Population – 371 686 people (2010).
12 km south-east of the city, Plovdiv International Airport is located.
Plovdiv is one of the most beautiful cities of the Balkan; For the amazing painting of the historic center, it is called the city of artists. More than 200 buildings of the city are declared historical monuments and taken under protection.
Plovdiv is one of the oldest cities in Europe. He is older than Rome, Athens, Carthage and Constantinople.
The first settlements in its place are dated more than 6000 years ago.
In 342 BC. NS. The city was conquered by Philipp II Macedonian, the father of Alexander Macedonsky, who called his Philippopolis in his honor. During this period, the city also wore another name – Audris. The name of Audris can be found in the now rare bronze coins.
In 72 BC. NS. Plovdiv captured the legions of the Roman commander Brand Terentation of Varon Vakula. In the future, in 46 BC. NS. The city finally fell under the domination of the Roman Empire (where he was the center of the province of Frace) and was called Trimontium («The city of three hills»). At this time, the city, being an important reference point of the Romans, achieved a heyday: this is evidenced by the numerous ruins of Roman buildings, preserved to this day: the hippodrome, their and amphitheater. For no one ten years, the Romans held by all the forces held by Plovdiv under their control on one important reason – an important strategic road was held through the city, connecting the Balkans with the outside world.
In the VI century, Plovdiv was under the control of Slavic tribes and in 815 was included in the first Bulgarian kingdom. At this time, the city received the name Pyldin. In the next century, control over the city has repeatedly passed from Bulgaria to Byzantium, while in 1364 he was not captured by Ottomans. It is known that the city four times robbed armies of the Crusaders.
Under the rule of the Turks who gave the city of Philib, he is experiencing his flourishing associated with the wide development of trade.
The first time the name Plovdiv is used in the XV century (researchers associate this name with the ancient Thracian name of the city – Pulpudeva).
Being under the control of the Ottoman Empire, Plovdiv was the center of the Bulgarian National Liberation Movement. After the expulsion of the Turks (1878), the city became the capital of a semi-independent Eastern Rumelia, which was attached to Bulgaria in 1885.
After World War II, Plovdiv was a stronghold of a democratic movement in Bulgaria, which eventually led to the overthrow of the Soviet regime in 1989.
With ancient times in Plovdiv, the remnants of the Roman Forum, Stadium, Antique Theater, Basilica, Term, Public and Residential Buildings are preserved.
Roman forum – Construction refers to 3-2 in. to N.NS. His ruins today are located underground and only a small part of them is available for inspection.
Antique Theater for 3000 seats built in II in. N.NS. Emperor Mark Away, is the best of the preserved monuments of those times. Now he is renovated, and in it, various ideas and festivals are organized.
Old city Located on three hills – jambaz-teke, taxis-teke and unbearable. This is the oldest part of Plovdiv, where there are fortresses of Thracian structures, narrow medieval streets and residential buildings of the XV-XIX centuries, which attracts attention to wood thread and decorative paintings.
Since the times of Turkish rule, preserved Mosques «Imaret» and "Jew" (1444-1445), as well as one of the oldest in Europe clock tower. To the era of the Bulgarian Renaissance Church of the Holy Week (1831), Saint Dimitra (1831) and Holy Marina (1853-1854).
Above on the hill Bunardzhik (hill of the liberators) rises Monument to the Soviet soldier "Alyosha" (Installed in 1954). The monument is a 11 meter reinforced concrete sculpture of the Soviet soldier looking to the East.
The city has a significant amount of art galleries, archaeological, natural scientific and ethnographic museums.
30 km from the beddow Bachkovsky monastery (founded in 1083) – the second largest after the Rilsky Orthodox Male Monastery of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. It is famous for its amazing combination of the traditions of Byzantine, Georgian and Bulgarian cultures. This is one of the most visited places in Bulgaria, an important tourist center, is included in the list of the national domain of Bulgaria.
The only preserved part of the monastery since its foundation is a crypt that is 300 meters from more modern monastery buildings.
The Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary, built in 1604, is the location of the miraculous icon of the Virgin "Uming", attracting many pilgrims.
The Middle Ages buildings also include the Church of St. Archengel, the basement of which painted the most famous Bulgarian Artist of the National Renaissance – Zakhariya Zogra.
The Museum of the Monastery works from 9:00 to 17:00 and is proud of its rich collection of books, icons, keeps the sword of Friedrich Barbarossa.