Mystery Castle Neuschwestin Ludwig Bavarian – Munich, Germany – Tourist Blog
On this day, on August 25, 1845, the "king-fairy tale" was born Ludwig Bavarian. Birth, the extraordinary life of the most famous king of Europe and especially his mysterious death still remain a mystery.
Recently, I realized my long-time dream – visited Neuschwanstein Castle – Creation of King Ludwig. However, I was not interested not so much castle as its creator – "Fabulous King" Ludwig II Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Bavarian.
For contemporaries, King Ludwig was someone else’s, strange, incomprehensible, extraordinary, strange.
"I am a mystery. And I want to stay an eternal mystery. For yourself and for others, "Ludwig said.
So what is the mystery of the king Ludwig Bavarian?
Around the life of Ludwig II Bavarian so many myths that it is already difficult to figure out where the truth is, and where the fiction. He himself folded about himself a fairy tale, a riddle, which still solve.
I tried to solve this riddle and I.
I have long wanted to write about this extraordinary person. Especially after watching the brilliant film Lukino Wisconti "Ludwig" of 1972 with Helmut Berger in the lead role.
Information about the "fabulous king", as Ludwig Bavarians called, extremely contradictory, as well as evidence of his mysterious death.
His father – Kronprintz Maximilian (Future King of Bavaria Maximilian II) and Mother – Penglish Crown Princess Maria, Daughter Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Karl, hid the fact of the birth of the heir for several days. Why?
Ludwig was born in Munich on August 25, 1845. He spent his childhood in the castle of the parents of Hoeschwangau ("Swan Castle") – summer and hunting residence of Vittelsbach. According to legend, the dynasty of the Vittelsbach, to which Ludwig II belonged, originates from the medieval knights, whose castle was located at "Swan lake" – Schwansee.
Hogenswangau’s historic castle was built in the XII century between the two mountain lakes – Schwansee (Swan Lake) and Alpensee (Alpine Lake). The castle was strongly injured during the Napoleonic wars of 1800-1809; Ruins remained from him. Romantically tuned Prince Maximilian bought the ruins of the castle and built his summer residence Hoechwangau in 1832-1836.
The walls of the castle in which the young Ludwig lived, decorated scenes from medieval legends, including the tale of the Swan Knight Loengrine.
In the Middle Ages, the Bavarian Malestrey chased the feats of the Swan Knights, held in these parts into the glory of Holy Grail – Bowl, in which the Savior’s Blood was collected.
Tungsten von Eschenbach in the Roman "Parcifal" talks about hidden from all mortal castle in the Alps named Monsalvat, where the Garlary bowl is kept – a sacred vessel containing several drops of the blood of Christ. Dreamed of getting it and english king richard lion heart. The keeper of the bowl was Parcifal – Father Lojergin. On a boat, in front of the White Swan on the Swan Lake, Loangrin sails to the aid of Elsa, Duchess von Brabant. He saves her, but asks never to ask his name. When Elsa once violates the ban, Loangrin must return to the Holy Grailer.
Ludwig very often imagined himself at the site of fabulous characters. But especially his imagination swan knight Lojangrin.
Ludwig on the lake for a long time admired White Swans, who were fascinated by him in the kingdom of grail.
White Swan – a symbol of loyalty and purity. In England, he is considered the royal bird and is under the patronage of the monarch.
About White Swan as an all-face archetype testify the most ancient legends.
In the Hindu Vedas, the swan personifies the Great Soul, which living in the world remains independent of this world. And the swan, crowned with the Golden Crown, – the royal anointed, leading to the worlds of inetentive bliss.
In the Irish Archetype, Swan – a symbol of eternal Nity. In Irish Saga, two heroes saved from the army of the cruel king and turn into swans. They fly to the world of Gorenia, where they are welcomed by the beautiful king swan – the deity of pure love.
Unlike his eccentric younger brother Otto, Ludwig on psychological type was an introvert – immersed in itself. He could look at the pictures on the walls, presenting himself by a member of mythological plots.
Parents did not pay attention to children. From the side of the Father, the upbringing reduced only to punishments. He is personally Syuk children. Therefore, the young dreamy Ludwig was looking for refuge in the romantic world of fairy tales.
Perhaps, in childhood, Ludwig persisted the fairy tales, which Hans-Christian Andersen himself told him, specially invited to this parent.
Ludwig from childhood loved the theater, participated in domestic performances. Even in early youth, Ludwig showed a large architectural talent. The future king possessed a romantic and dreamy warehouse of character, adored music, nature and poetry, and did not prepare for the management of the country.
When Ludwig was sixteen years old, an event occurred in his life, in many respects determined his fate. On February 2, 1861, he was present at the presentation of the opera of the famous German composer Richard Wagner "Lorangery". Wagner’s music shook the young Ludwig, and since then he became a passionate fan of the composer.
March 10, 1864 King Maximilian died. On the same day, the King of Bavaria was announced 18-year-old Ludwig. On March 11, at 10 am in the Hall of Meetings of the State Council, Ludwig brought an oath to the Constitution of Bavaria. The young king was obsessed with his mission and the idea of the Holy Kingdom of God’s mercy. In the throne speech, Ludwig said: "I will always do everything in my power to bring my happiness to my people.".
Ludwig called the most beautiful king of Europe. He was writing a handsome man in 1 m 91 cm, with lush dark-chestnut curly hair and tremendous dreamy eyes. Contemporaries amazed by their extraordinary expression of Ludwig’s eyes. Their color changed from light blue to black depending on the location of the King’s spirit.
"These are passionate eyes of Adonis," said the grandfather of the young king Ludwig I.
And the famous French mental psychiatrist Morel saw them in them: "These are the eyes in which the future of madness burns".
Women souls have not buried in young handsome. But Ludwig was in love with all his life only in one woman – in her cousin, Austrian Empress Elizabeth, a better known under the name of Sissy. She was considered the most beautiful woman of the then Europe. But Ludwig could not marry her.
Yes, everything can be kings. And the fate of the whole land is praised sometimes. But that no king can not marry love!
Ludwig and Sissi were similar not only outwardly, but also internally. Sissi seems to even love Ludwig. However, she could not abandon the Austrian crown. "People of our profession are not history. We are decorative faces. Then we quickly forget, unless we can give themselves some significance, leaving you voluntarily ".
Under the influence of Sissi, Ludwig took a spontaneous decision on the engagement with her younger sister Sophia Charlotte. "You will prove to all that a person and king can be, only making good and staying clean".
Ludwig called his bride by Elsa by the name of the heroine legends about Loangrine, however, did not feel like Loangrin in love.
Once Ludwig, being the fiance of Sofia Charlotte, wanted to deliver to her unexpected pleasure. He scored the choir of wandering musicians and headed into the castle of the bride to execute the Serenad. What was his indignation when the bride saw his beloved playing his abbot curls. They were saved by the hunters. Sofia was returned to father. She stated that Ludwig was obsessed with hallucinations.
Ludwig all the time postponed the moment of the wedding, to which everything was already ready. The angry father of the bride put an ultimatum: if the king does not agree to marry his daughter on November 28, he will terminate this engagement. Ludwig gladly grabbed this pretext. "Your cruel father separated us," he wrote the bride. After that, with relief, Bust Sofia threw out the window.
The engagement of the engagement stolen not only the parents of Sofia, but also the relatives of Ludwig and know the highest. Elizabeth Austrian wrote Mother: "I am glad only to the fact that Sofia is so perceiving that, happy, God sees, with such a person she would not become".
However, no one guessed that three days after the engagement with King Ludwig Sophie fell in love with the merchant Edgar Hanfshtens and secretly met with him in the Pelon Palace.
"I don’t like Ludwig, but I don’t want him to find out about it". She wanted to become a Queen, and at the same time have a lovelist. This is very convincingly shown in the film "Sophie – Passionate Princess".
"For love you need to fight. Because everything is violently like grass. And even man. He appears like a flower in the steppe. Suddenly the wind will fly, and it is no longer. And where there was a flower, there is no trace. And only in love we gain immortality ".
After terminating the engagement, Ludwig wrote Richard to Vagneru, which feels herself from a deadly disease.
Since then, Ludwig has refused all marriages imposed on him and hated all women.
One famous actress Ludwig ordered to read him out loud. These readings occurred in the bedroom of the King Dancy and Nosno. The king was lying in bed, and beautiful honor was sitting next to the chair. Once the actress, lingering reading, during the declamation sat on the edge of the king bed. It caused a terrible wrath of Ludwig. In 24 hours, she was sent from Bavaria for insulting Majesty, despite the fact that he was a favorite Munich.
Once, walking in the park, Ludwig met his secretary’s wife. The next day, he told the secretary: "I saw the face of your wife". Secretary stood in bewilderment. "I saw the face of your wife," the king repeated sharply. Secretary hurried to declare that henceforth this negligence will not happen.
The only woman who Ludwig II endured and even caressed, was the princess Gizel, the wife of Prince Leopold (Uncle Ludwig). In their oddities and the eccentricity, Princess Gizel not only resembled Ludwig II, but even surpassed him. So it is not surprising that the king was gracious to a person who understood him.
With Mother Ludwig also never had warm relationships, nor in childhood, nor in adulthood. Over the years, he even hated mother and called her not otherwise as "the widow of my predecessor".
After joining the throne, the young king with diligence fulfilled his duties of the sovereign. Almost every week, Ludwig was invited to participate in the meeting of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria. Ludwig tried, but the rules ineptly. Soon he was tired of political life. He hated this disgrace of hypocrites and insignificance.
Famous theologian of that time Ignac von Dellingger wrote: "Our king constantly lives in the world of fantasies, poetry, music, drama. He wants nothing to know about the prose of life. ".
With great desire, Ludwig took up cultural issues. He believed that a powerful impetus for the development of the whole state was laid in the development of art.
First of all, he invited Richard Wagner to Munich. Ludwig wrote to Vagneru: "From the earliest childhood, you were, without knowing that my only pleasure, mentor and teacher, the best friend who spoke with my heart".
On May 4, 1864, Ludwig personally met his idol. When they met, Ludwig fell to Wagner on his knees.
The young king literally saved the composer from the debt prison. Ludwig gave to Wagner his country villa and promised to pay all his costs to, as he wrote in one of his letters to Vagneru, he "could freely fix the powerful wings of his genius in the clean air of amazing art".
Ludwig allocated money for the Music drama Wagner "Ring Nibelung", which he had to write in three years. Also, the king found funds for the construction of the Palace of Festivals in Bayreuth, where the opera Wagner is put.
The truly famous Richard Wagner became only after acquaintance with his good genius. About Ludwig composer said: "He … unheard of miracle!".
Later, Richard Wagner argued that the king was absolutely non-music. Wagner wrote to his friend Dr. Ville: "Unfortunately, the king is so brilliant, such noble, so emotional and amazing that I am afraid, how would his life disappear, as a rod in the sand, in this cruel world. I am so lucky that I’m just crushed; Just b it lived … "
In Munich, Ludwig created a music school and decided to build a new opera house, equipped in accordance with the requirements of the Wagner opera.
He and Wagner wanted to return to the theater his appointment – transform the art of the soul of people!
Ludwig dreamed to Wagner wrote his operas in his new "Swan Castle" – Neuschwanstein. "Here we will feel the Divine Breath of Heaven".
But the Bavarian Burgers and the Government, the concerned increase in the expenses of the king on the theater and music, did not like the friendship with a wasteful composer.
In December 1865, Ludwig was forced to give way to the requirements of the government, Munich residents and his own family and sent Richard Wagner from Bavaria.
"His life in everyday world conditions will flash, as an instant, divine sleep!"- spoke Wagner about Ludwig.
Ludwig was very worried. All subsequent years, up to the death of Wagner in 1883, Ludwig constantly coped with him and transferred money to theatrical performances in Bayreuth. There on the orders of King Wagner and was buried.
"I was the first to recognize the artist, whom the whole world mourns today," loved to repeat Ludwig. – "Wagner is the greatest gift that I can bring to my people. Vagneur I owe courage and faith in what I can do something good in life at least in the modest role of an intermediary ".
But the Bavarian Burgers did not understand such affection of the king to the Vagneur. They caught only the growing traffic of the king. He seemed to them someone else’s, strange, incomprehensible, extraordinary, strange.
Art requires victims. And ordinary people are not capable. What does not promote direct cash benefits, the inhabitants are not interested.
"About how poor and vulgar many people. Their life is spinning inside the close and narrow circle of their inexpressible everyday life, "Ludwig Wagneru wrote. – "We must punch a gap in consumer wall. Give the laws on which our world rests. The ideal must come up again!"
Passion for Wagner music soon switched to Ludwig to the adoration of Wagner himself. They were even suspected of homosexual relationships. But Wagner sharply negatively treated homosexuals.
The following letter of Ludwig characterizes his attitude to the Wagneur. "I ask you not to fall in spirit, I ask you on behalf of those you endow the pleasures that God could give alone. You and God! To death, before the transition to another world, in the kingdom of the night of the world, staying faithful to you Ludwig ». (Berg, June 12, 1865.)
When the war began in 1866, Bavaria spoke on the side of the German Union and Austria. Ludwig tried in every way to avoid war. For this, he was even ready to abandon the throne.
But Ludwig could not stop wars. All that he could have to declare: "For me, this war does not exist.".
Ludwig handed over military affairs in the hands of his ministers and went to Switzerland to meet with Richard Wagner.
After the defeat of Bavaria in the war, Ludwig moves away from government management. It is removed in his locks and manages the country through the Messages. From visiting public events, the king was discarded toothpacity and dizziness.
"For me, unbearably, when thousands of people stare on me, I can’t constantly smile and embroider greetings, ask questions that do not care at all and listen to extremely uninteresting answers to them.".
When Ludwig finally understood that he would not be able to express himself as a progressive ruler, the king was inserted by the construction of new palaces and castles. The most large and expensive projects were a fabulous castle Neuschwanstein, a lone residence Linderhof and perhaps the largest Herrennsee project – an exact copy of Versailles located on the island of Herrenwerth in the middle of Lake Kimsee.
Linderhof Castle was built in 1874-1878 on the site of the so-called "royal house" his father Maximilian II. Linderhof is the smallest of three built Ludwig castles, but the only one derived to the end. When it is built for the supply of light, the first thermal power plant was built in the world.
Linderhof – a real little Versailles. Everything in it resembles the "King Sun" of Louis XIV, which was a model for Ludwig. Dressed in the suit of this king, Ludwig got rid of the rooms of the palace and repeated everything that he considered decent from the life of the French monarch.
In the middle of the dining hall was "Table, Cut!"- a dining table, which thanks to a special mechanism could go down, in the kitchen, where the servants were fully served, then, already covered, the table rose again into the royal dining room.
Ludwig dined one, but ordered to cover the table for 3-4 persons. During the meal, he talked with the spirits of representatives of the Bourbon dynasty, Madame Pompadour, and was happy.
In addition to the construction of Linderhof Castle and Castle, Herrenaksee in 1868, Ludwig conceived the construction of Neuschwanstein Castle (Neuschwanstein), which translated from German means "New Swan Rods".
"Schwan" German means "Swan", And Schwein – "Pig". Therefore, you need to talk correctly: not the lock "Pigs", but "the new swan cliff".
"I decided to rebuild the old castle," Ludwig Wagneru wrote. – Architectural style will reproduce the primordial German knightly castles. The location of it is one of the most beautiful, which can be found. The castle will be sacred and impregnable. ".
We traveled to the castle of Neuschwanstein, we traveled by train from Munich to the town of Füssen, and then by bus to Schwangau village. Power and at the same time the elegance of architecture amazed! Internal chambers appeared lush, but at the same time small. The castle reminded me of a "swallow nest" in the Crimea.
Neuschwanstein stands on the site of two fortresses, front and rear Schwangau. Once at this place was located medieval castle Schwancenein ("Swan Rods"). In the time of Ludwig II, only ruins remained from him, which were equal to the earth to strengthen the rock.
The king ordered at this point by explosion the cliff to lower the plateau approximately 8 m and thereby create a place to build a palace. After construction of the road and pipeline laying on September 5, 1869, the first stone was laid in the base of the castle.
Construction was entrusted to the court architect Eduardre Riedel. Theatrical artist Christian Jank transfers Ludwig’s dreams on paper. When designing, the plans of the medieval castle Vartburg were also used.
Neuschwanstein became a kind of projection for Ludwig a kind of projection ***************.
"On a high cliff where on the background of heaven
Wildly thorough smashes a black forest,
Where among silence waterfall only noise,
White castle, like a swan, boil over the forest. "
All architecture and artistic castle decorations are permeated with a swan’s motif. Swan – a heraldic bird of an old genus Schwangau graphs – the successor of this kind considered her father Ludwig.
From the inside the castle is decorated with illustrations to Wagner Operas and old German legends, primarily the legend of Loengrine.
This is a real fabulous palace. In the castle you can see the mixture of architectural styles of non-hereniss, neooyatka, Neurokko.
In Neuschvastein, the king ordered to put several dynamo cars and carry out electricity.
In 1869-1873, the castle gates were built. Only in 1872 at least 450 tons of cement were delivered to the construction. In 1880, 209 carpenters, kamenotes and utility workers were employed at construction site.
A giant amount was spent on the construction of Neuschvastein from the state treasury – six million gold stamps. At the same time, good half of the money simply rarely. Accused of squashing king. Life Medica King, Dr. Shleis, responded to the surrounding monarch: "These corrupt, small, false, slaves only ignited him and pushed him into insane costs".
When the Finance Minister stated the king that there is no money from the state to build a castle, and that the state has already included in significant debts, Ludwig II gave such an order to the Royal Commission regarding the bold minister: "Calm him, a dog, and then to buy his eyes".
Ludwig applied to loans in Brazil, Stockholm, Constantinople, Tehran, as well as to the French government, providing neutrality for this in case of France war with Germany. All this bothered Berlin, who watched the king Ludwig.
The king even conceived to send faithful people to the major cities of Europe in order to robbing banks. However, the "faithful people" betrayed their king, spending money issued for personal needs and informing that the conceived plan was broken by circumstances independent of them.
If some thought came to Ludwig, he immediately had to fulfill her. Once he learned that the opera was given in Vienna, in which Madame Pompadur was led. Ludwig ordered the ambassador to deliver the opera score by anything, although neither the author nor the director of the theater wanted to give it. I had to hire a stenograph and thus get the score.
The king was looking for an understanding – and did not find, I was looking for love – and I did not find, I was looking for harmony – and did not find. As a result, he remained with himself. Loneliness – the inevitable lot of such people.
In 1881, Ludwig became friends with the Viennese actor Josef Kain. Together they traveled to Switzerland in the footsteps of Wilhelm Telly.
Ludwig was looking for friendship, appreciated sincerity and devotion.
"But if I miraculously met the straight and pure heart of a man, madman, who did not lose the ability to duplicate in horror before the terrible. When I had before me, this soul was not lost illusions … "
– I, I am the very pure person, with a soul that did not lose illusions! – says Ludwig (performed by Helmut Berger) in the brilliant film Lukino Wisconti "Ludwig".
"… So what did this person with a deep, gentle and open heart guessed? Only the fact that silently wondering the knee, he loved you one for so many years?!"
Last years of life, Ludwig was sitting in the state council, the shielded screen, and no one saw his face. When the king was bored by the permanent bunch of ministers, he was thinking to make escape. He wanted to sell Bavaria and buy an uninhabited island, wherever he had no constitution, nor the Council of Ministers. Director of State Archives Ludwig II ordered to go deep into the Himalayan Mountains to find there such a country where Ludwig could reign an unlimited monarch. A nationals traveled Canada, Cyprus, Crete and even Crimea to find such a secluded corner, where his monarch could live calmly for several years.
On the court dinners, a table serving was arranged so that the tables sitting at the table were hidden by vases and flowers, so that the king could not see those present.
One of the approaches should have been to the king in a mask for several weeks, since the Lord did not endure his faces.
Visiting the theater, the king hid in the bed, and later ordered the opera to play only for himself one.
Ludwig could not build the perfect kingdom of God’s mercy in his kingdom, and therefore decided to build heavenly Jerusalem for one heather.
Neuschwanstein became a kind of monastery for lonely Ludwig. Here he is hiding from people and bustle, here he wants to be closer to God.
In the spring of 1884, the king could already live in his chambers on the 4th floor. There Ludwig II spent a quarter of all over the past two years before his death.
In an unfinished castle, Ludwig lived only 172 days. After the death of King in 1886, all construction work was suspended. Already a few weeks after the death of Ludwig II, the castle was opened for visitors to at least partially compensate.
Until now, a lot of legends are connected with the castle. During the Second World War, artworks and jewelry from the Hitler’s personal collection were kept here, as well as Gold Reichsbank. They say, in the last days of the war, the treasures were recessed in one of the nearby lakes.
In 1869-1872, the Alpine Wooden House was built on the direction of Ludwig in the mountains. There since the mid-1870s, the king conducted his birthday in solitude.
Ludwig enjoyed loneliness and suffered from him. In the last years of his life, he became more and more by hermit, finally left in his own fictional world, populated by heroes of legends.
In the afternoon, the king slept, and at night went to walk on the horse, very often high in the mountains, where at the light of the moon declamored the beloved Schiller. For that, he began to call him the "lunar king".
During such walks, Ludwig II loved to imagine himself in the image of the mythical knight of the Swan – Loangrin, sometimes even changed into his costume.
"Fabulous king" Often climbed up the gorge to the Mountain Bridge Marienbryuk, named so in honor of his mother – Princess Mary Freering Penglish.
In the evenings, by order of Ludwig II, in all the premises of Noyshvanstein, the light was lit, so that under the starry sky, he could love to admire his residence.
King from childhood avoided people. Now this feature of the nature intensified and turned into a shelf. Ludwig mysteriously wandered over the empty halls of the palace, illuminated by countless candles. In winter, he often at night, dressed in a fantastic costume of the Mountain Spirit, took a trip to the mountains on the sleigh covered with electric light.
Very often, Ludwig dressed in the clothes of Pilgrim and imagined himself with a pilgrim from the "Tangeizer". Often he depicted a knight of Tristan. But the biggest pet was the swan knight Lojengrin.
Ludwig commanded to bring in Neuschwanstein the most thoroughbred swans of the tsarist label to admire them. It is known that meditation when admiring the White Swan cleans the soul. *********** White Swans, a person is in the order of immortality. So taught the Knights of the Holy Bowl in the castles of Grail.
Ludwig not only wanted to be Loangrin, but wanted to live Loangrin. To do this, he dressed in a loan costume and sailed in a boat on an artificial lake in a grotto Venus. So that the water was azure, as the king wanted, her tinted her. And the first mini-power plant in Germany created an excitement on the water.
In the youth, the refined, moderate and quite sober, Ludwig II began to argue and drink a lot of wine. Favorite his drink was champagne mixed with Rhinewin and with drops of violet essential oil.
Reaching in Neuschvastein, the king drank champagne and brandy in unlimited quantities. He humiliating with a servant and his ministers who had to search for him in the mountains to get signatures on documents.
Often the king heard voices and saw hallucinations. During snow and frost it seemed to him that he was standing at the shores of the sea. The king was bowed to trees and bushes, filmed a hat in front of the shrub and forced the close to bow in front of the statue, taking her for Maria Antoinette. Or perhaps he just played it?
Ludwig II suffered terrible headaches, especially in the back of the head, and often resorted to ice. Wanting to get rid of insomnia, the king consulted a lot of soothing (chloralhydrate), which gave the opposite effect. There were cases when Muscular rabies attacks were attacked by Ludwig: he grew, danced, jumped, drove his hair and beard; Another time he, on the contrary, stupid and stood the clock still in place.
In childhood, the prince of Ludwig had flashes of anger. Once he almost hung his little brother Otto, accusing *************** subordination.
Now, in rabies, the king gave orders to "challenge the chains" and even "drown in the lake". Ludwig pronounced terrible words against the father and mother, against the German emperor and other sovereigns.
The king sometimes ordered to plant his subjects and water into imaginary Bastilia. 32 His servants were king beaten. Ludwig’s personal weapon was hidden from him.
Gradually, Ludwig became a Misanthrop.
Like many men who have not found love and understanding of women, Ludwig was looking for understanding and love in men. The king asked for his subjects to recruit in the servant of "beautiful young men" using them as their lovers. In 2002, the signs of King Ludwig king him suddenly emerged to his ******** Postman Karlah Hesselshverd. They contain the instructions for the selection of "Friends" male and the requirement be sure to provide candid photos of applicants.
Ludwig was a strange person. Passionate about the stories of Zaer Mazoha, Ludwig entered him into a nameless correspondence, which gradually raised them closer. Ludwig even prescribed a date in the rocks of Tirol. His mysterious meeting with the king of the Zaran-Masoch described in the story "Adventure with Ludwig II".
Another strange person – Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky – also suspected of homosexuality.
When in 1875 Tchaikovsky made an order to write a romantic ballet, he remembered Opere Richard Wagner "Lorangery". From the student years, Tchaikovsky highly appreciated the music of Wagner and dreamed of meeting him personally. In 1876, Tchaikovsky went to Bavaria at the premiere of the Wagner "Ring of Nibelung, where two composers got acquainted.
In Tchaikovsky’s music, you can often hear the extensions of the Wagner opera.
Visiting the Swan Lake (Schwansee) and returning to Russia, Tchaikovsky writes his "Swan Lake". But the brilliant creation of the master at first did not find recognition. The first listeners told Tchaikovsky: "It is impossible to dance your ballet. This is rather symphony. You took up the inconceivable plot, incomprehensible to simple mortal. ".
Geniuses always seem incomprehensible and strange.
100 years ago, the famous French sociologist Emil Durkheim wrote a work in which he argued that the genius and madness of things are pretty close, often intersecting.
Every person who seems to be incomprehensible to most, with ease can be called abnormal and even crazy.
In this crazy world it is not difficult to go crazy. Only truly crazy seem to be normal here.
Yes, and what is normal? Same as all? And if a person does not want to adapt, he wants to remain, then he is not normal?
The easiest way to get rid of a disagreeable person is to declare him crazy.
Any person who is passionate about any idea can be called paranoid.
People of mediocre, no one outstanding, usually no one pursues. Pursue those who are in their dating or abilities anything is issued over the surrounding.
Who wanted to get rid of King Ludwig II ?
Ancient Roman principle reads: "Look for someone to whom it is profitable"!
Monarchy in Bavaria was constitutional, and democratic institutions gradually reduced the power of the king. But Ludwig was still very popular in the people. And if he asked for money in the parliament for the construction of a new castle of Grail Falkenstein, they would give him money, but would send the Cabinet of Ministers in resignation. King’s debt at 13 million brands threatened with dismissal from office Prime Minister Lutz.
Personal adjutant King Colonel Durkheim testified: "The private life of the king is strange to the extent and so far, since his government wanted it to be strange. Before the castles began to be built, all these spending were regularly appreciated by the State Treasury. In the government there were people interested in the king to indulge in their madness. There were people who had a dangerous influence on the king. Then these people were removed from the government.
– You hint at the Government of Bavaria entered a plot against his legal monarch?"
Yes, it was a plot that was preparing for a long time. Back in 1870, the Prime Minister of Bavaria, Count Briah Steinburg proposed the king of Ludwig to voluntarily refuse to power and transfer the crown to Penglish king. Large privileges were proposed as an explicit. But Ludwig categorically refused, because I wanted to see Bavaria independent.
If the king did not want to abandon the throne, then in accordance with the Constitution of Bavaria, it was possible to deprive his authorities. One could only declare the king as incapable. Power in this case passed to the heir to the throne Kronprint Otto. But since Prince Otto was on cure in a crazy house, the authorities were transferred to the regent Prince Leopold.
As a result of a successful conspiracy, at the head of which Prime Minister Lutz stood, the king was recognized as mentally ill and declared incapable. For this was used punitive psychiatry.
On June 8, 1886, the largest German psychiatrist of the time Professor Bernhard von Gudden and Consilium from three doctors came to the conclusion, writtenly fixed that "His Majesty is sick paranoia in severe shape. The disease is very launched and hardly curable. The position will be only ************. Such a disease destroys freedom of will, and the further intervention of the king into public affairs will only interfere with the management of the kingdom. This state of the soulful activity of the king is lifelong ".
The weak point of medical detention was that it was based only on letters and testimony. Doctors could not examine the king himself, because he hardly permits such an inspection. The diagnosis of the doctors "blind in absentia".
When Professor Bernhard von Gudden told the King Consilium’s decision, outraged Ludwig asked:
– How can you declare me mentally ill if you never examine me?
– Your Majesty, this is not necessary, "replied the court ***************** possess the information that sufficiently evidence gives us.
What no evidence?
Indeed, Ludwig II had a number of ancestors with undoubted burden of the central nervous system. Father, representative of the genus Vittelsbach, and mother – from the genus of Gogenzollers, suffered from various mania. Ludwig’s younger brother – Otto – also suffered from mental illness.
But even more strikingly, Ludwig could not be the son of King Maximilian II !
There were, allegedly, even a personal letter of King Maximilian, in which he confessed that Ludwig and Otto was not his native sons.
The fact is that in 1835 Maximilian went to wrap in Budapest, where he infected with tripper. This disease at that time was considered incurable, and therefore he lost the opportunity to have an heir. Maximilian asked the court chaleder, Italian by origin, Joseph Tambosi, from time to time to perform married duties instead. Well, so that the queen of Maria does not suspect anything and did not find replaces, at these evenings he attacked her wine. Alcohol, as you know, poorly affects heredity.
Our Petr I (unlike his painful native brother) is also unknown from which Grenador was born. But it is known that the king took into homosexual communications and died of a venereal disease. However, he did not become less great.
Based on a medical conclusion, on June 9, 1886, the Bavaria, the State Council of Bavaria decided to recognize the King of Ludwig as incapable and removing him from power. Over the king was installed guardianship, the Board of the country took on the Bavarian Prince Leopold – Uncle King.
Ludwig II was accused of configured an excessive number of "no one who needs" castles, spending a huge amount from the state treasury. The second point came the renewing about the non-participation of Ludwig in the life of his own country. And the third point indicated the accusation of the homosexual orientation of Ludwig.
To declare the king, the decision of the State Council on removing him from power was created by a special commission. On the night of June 10, the Commission in which the Count Max Background Holstein arrived in Neuschwanstein Castle.
When the king learned from his coachcher that he was preparing to arrest, Ludwig gathered the Gendarmery and firefighters from the neighboring villages, caused a regiment of hurkers and wrote appeal to the army.
Gendarmes and firefighters armed in defense of the king and met the commission with arms in hand.
The king has published an order: "To buy the members of the Commission and weave the skin living".
Commission members were arrested. However, they soon let them go, and they hastily fled to Munich.
June 11, the Commission was in the castle again. This time the king met her quite calm. He refused every attempt to escape, although everything was prepared for this. They say, the king attempted to throw out from the castle tower, but it was removed from this approximate. Being under the supervision of gendarmes, who took the oath to loyalty to the regent, the king kept himself smoothly and calmly. He wanted to show how much it could be.
"I admit for the best to obey fate," said Ludwig. – My uncle could not eliminate me from the board, if my people were not agreeing on it. ".
Somewhat later, Ludwig said: "I would be very easy to get rid, – it would only be possible to jump out of this window and the end of the end. What the board is deprived of me – it’s nothing, but I can’t survive what the crazy ".
The king was taken under protection and at 4 am on June 12 transported to the castle Berg near Lake Starnberg.
The surrounding residents were very sorry for the king, many cried.
Ludwig understood: "They want to destroy me. I still do not know how they will do it, but I know that this is their only goal. I can only be on the onset, watching this awesome. I can only watch how they are sculpting the rope, on which they hang me ".
When the Chancellor of the German Empire Otto Back Bismarca reported about the madness of the Bavarian king, he said: "Lie! I personally know Ludwig! Was not on earth of the second monarch! This man is worthy of worship … ".
Bismarck offered Ludwig to look for protection in parliament. But the king did not follow the Bismarck advice to appear before the people in Munich. Later, Bismarck said about Ludwig: "He gave fate to crush herself".
Power demands to be insidious and dishonest. Ludwig did not want to be such. He wanted to preserve loyalty to his ideals. Between the authorities and honor Ludwig chose honor. He dreamed of staying in the memory of the people Saint King.
If the king wanted to resist, the bloodshed would be inevitable.
But Ludwig did not want to resist. He asked for poison.
Perhaps Ludwig was frightened by the fate of the Festoon’s Fathew Brother, concluded in a crazy house.
The former bride of Ludwig his cousin Sofia Charlotte also spent several years in a crazy house, and her mother lost his mind.
Poor, poor Ludwig!
"The king was not crazy, but just an eccentric in the world of Greaz," his beloved Sissy admitted. She cooked Ludwig’s flight to Vienna. Her armed servants were attended and spent the night at the opposite shore of Starnberg Lake. But about this, allegedly, it became known to Regency Leopold (Uncle King), and he ordered to eliminate the nephew.
June 13, 1886 about 18.30 Ludwig went for a walk to the castle park with Professor von Gudden. Behind them were accompanied by two ministers. Noticing the servants, the king asked them to remove what was fulfilled. At 20 o’clock, the king and gudden were not returned from the walk. Rose overall anxiety. The search began. Their bodies were found on shallow water in Lake Starnberg around 23-00 of the same day.
What was it? Suicide or murder?
The death of Ludwig is called "The most mysterious killing of the XIX century".
According to the official version, Ludwig did not fall down the humiliation and wanted to be drowned. Professor tried to prevent him. Utopiv Gudden in a small place, Ludwig went deep into the lake, where he found his death.
King’s pocket watch stopped at 18 o’clock 45 minutes.
When the bodies found, the body and face of Ludwig were not damaged, with the exception of abrasions on the knee. Gudden’s face was broken, the right eye fell. At the throat of the doctor revealed several marks who were talking about suffocation. Opening not shed light for the causes of the death of a monarch.
In the film "Ludwig" in 1955, it is shown that Sissi with the help of their brothers prepared Ludwig Escape. When Ludwig finds out about it, then decides to run. On the lake, he stifles and heat the accompanying professor Gudden, and then decides to drown himself, or sinks by negligence.
It is also assumed that Ludwig wanted to escape and twist the lake. But the fight against the doctor who tried to prevent the king, and the heart stops prevented these plans. However, this version contains a lot of flaws. The sixty-year-old doctor of the chlipsky physique and the growth of 160 centimeters could not cope with the forty-male ludwig, height is under two meters.
There is a version of a heart attack. King led in recent months a sedentary lifestyle, weighed almost two hundred kilograms. However, when opening the body of an opaired monarch, in the presence of twelve doctors documented that the heart of the king was absolutely healthy, and he could not drown out because of ************* stops.
Ludwig was an excellent swimmer, which makes an unfortunate accident version.
Ludwig often stated that she was ready to reduce the scores with life. Therefore, official sources were beneficial to maintain the versa of madness and suicide.
There is also a version that before the walk, the king was oboen by narcotic drugs and simply collapsed on the shore of the lake. According to witnesses, the doctor deliberately sent the Sanitars who accompanied the king for walks. When Gudden began to drag the body to the depth, from the cold water, Ludwig came to himself, and the struggle began, traces of which were found rescuers.
But why was the psychiatrist to kill the king.
It is difficult to believe that the Sorceless Mighty King was released, accompanied by a sixty-year-old professor, and even released security. Most likely, they looked at them imperceptibly, and when the king tried to run, he was killed.
Dark Rainy Night Best Time for Crime.
The king was not drowned, he "helped drown", judging by the many traces of other people’s shoes on the place of the tragedy. In addition, it is quite difficult to get drowned on shallow water.
Police investigation of the tragic incident did not differ much careful.
There is still no answer to questions: why clothes of the king (allegedly with holes from bullets) immediately burned? Why the king’s clock stopped 11 hours earlier than the watch accompanying his doctor? Why the body of the king was first hidden in the boat house, and then this house was immediately demolished? Why in the death certificate von Gudden absent medical substantiation of the cause of his death?
Bavarians still remember the circumstances of the death of their king.
On the day, when we flew to Munich, we were lucky to talk with simple Bavarians. In conversation, they reminded me that this is the death day of King Ludwig. I was pleasantly surprised that people remember their monarch, and asked if his death had suicide or murder. I was answered that Ludwig killed conspirators from the highest nobility.
Yes, simple Bavarians loved their king. But the ruling elite decided to get rid of the unmanaged monarch.
Twenty-two years, representatives of the highest nobody of Bavaria "played King Ludwig II", knowing that he is not the son of King Maximilian II and not a legal heir to the throne. So fooling the simple people. When it is tired, with Ludwig dealt. The sentence performers disappeared without a trace. Native Uncle-Leopold – turned out to be in winning. For as many as 27 years old became a regent – the actual ruler of Bavaria – with a polulous nephew Otto.
The ruling tip welcomed the victory over the unpredictable and very independent king of hermit.
It is believed that the origins of a skillfully prepared state coup in Bavaria were representatives of the mysterious local sect of illuminates (dedicated). Adam Weishaupt wrote it at the end of the 18th century: "Morality is nothing but the art of learning people … how to lose custody yarm … how to do without princes and rulers".
One of the initiators of the riding of the king from power was the Count Max von Holstein, the former favorite of the king, sent to his resignation. It was he who launched a rumor about the madness of the king, it was he initiated by the arrest of Ludwig, he also declares the version of the suicide of the monarch. So Holstein dismissed Ludwig for his resignation.
The ministers betrayed their king! Similarly, the emperor Nicholas II of his generals were betrayed. Also betrayed Napoleon his ministers, opening the road to Paris.
When they want to get rid of the ruler, he is declared either sick (as Mikhail Gorbacheva), or crazy (like Paul I).
Emperor Paul, like Ludwig Bavarian, was too romantic, for which he was displaced.
Ludwig II was buried on June 19, 1886 in the tomb of the Church of St. Michael in Munich. Bavarians staged a lush funeral.
Some believed that the king was drowned in the lake; Others that Bismarck is to blame; Third that Ludwig was too good for his time.
Ludwig is still considered an impersonation of a good Bavarian monarch.
It was the last romantic on the throne!
Paul Vellen called him "the only genuine king of the XIX century".
Now in the place of the death of Ludwig II in Lake Starnberg installed a wooden cross. Every year on the day of the death of King, his admirers decorate the cross wreath.
Many Bavarians are convinced that the more magnificent king was not anywhere and never. And today, on the birthday of Ludwig II, the festivals in his honor are arranged in Bavaria.
The portrait of the king in the chapel, built in memory of him in the palace park of Berg, there are live flowers all year round. Flowers are standing and burning candles and Sarcophag King in the Church of St. Michael in Munich.
In 1982, a monument to Ludwig II was established in Linderhof.
About Korole Ludwig, his life and death are folded a lot of folk songs. There are about 60 companies of Ludwig II admirers. In 2003, one fan, a backpack of which was naked with photos of Ludwig II, tried to commit to life on the site of the death of the Bavarian King.
What the ruler must do to stay in the grateful memory of descendants?
Not everyone is possible to keep about themselves the memory of the wise board. Many seek to perpetuate their Board with the construction of majestic palaces.
We admire the Gatchina Palace of Emperor Paul and Pavlovsk Parks, Palaces and Parks of Petrodvorets, the Catherine Palace in the Tsarist village ..
Ludwig considered half a graphic eccentric. But the king left behind unsurpassed in the beauty of the castles. On their construction, he spent primarily his personal funds who released him the state for his personal needs. And spent in his state than he enriched tens of thousands of subjects.
Earring its castles, Ludwig carried out a very profitable investment in the future of his beloved Bavaria. He created highly artistic creations who decorated the country.
Ludwig achieved that Munich Opera became the best in the world. Many travelers glaels in Munich exclusively to listen to the opera.
What was accused and called crazy, now thank. The usual fate of genius!
So who is the right: the lazy majority or a strange incomprehensible loner, which brought himself a genius?
Today Neuschwanstein is the second (after the Eiffel Tower) the most visited tourist destination in the world. Every year more than 1.3 million tourists arrive in this castle in the Bavarian Alps. Neuschwanstein has long paid the attachments made in it and brings income.
So thanks to the king of Ludwig II for his desire to live elevated and subtle, for the construction of magnificent castles – the temples of eternal values!
"I am building my castles so that dreams and the ideal of beauty can live in them," Ludwig said. – "People need to know that there was a beautiful only for the sake of beautiful. Beautiful without goal ".
His castles were essentially temples. True kings are building temples!
And what else can korole?!
"There should be someone in the country who thinks not only about benefits, not only about the benefit. And if there are no others, this person should be the king ". So considered Ludwig II Bavarian.
Ludwig was supposed to be born an actor or poet, architect or musician, philosopher or artist. But he was born king. And all his life suffered from this.
Was it his purpose? Now you can say "yes".
"Probably, my place in the mirror hall, where people have no shadow," Ludwig said.
Ludwig – a man of another world – Outdoor! – Like his favorite Loangrin.
Knight Loranger came from another dimension to remind people: all of us expect us to be different – everyone according to his merit.
In our fallen world such people are strangers. They seem strange, incomprehensible, strangers ..
"And why should I be like that? – Says Ludwig. – The world that surrounds us, disgusting, is disgusting. All that are interested in people is *************************. And for the sake of this material well-being they are ready to go to any lowness. I’m not like they. I want to look for happiness in the impossible. I want to live in absolute truth!"
Father *********************** Ludwig – tells him: "For his subjects you should be essentially the same as they. You should not be different, should not be a stranger. Wagner was expelled because he is a genius. And the genius means someone else, not like everyone else. ".
"But what to do with me? I need all Ile nothing. I do not want to fake anyone, nor under what. Yes, I am someone else’s and to people. Strange – Here is a name for me. I do not accept Gray Budy and Lies with the name "Family". Let me freeze the intention of the silent, from the tears of his armor creating. In it, lonely suffocations, and choking all in tears. Like a moth, I fall asleep in the cold and in the wind, and very soon, I know exactly, without understanding. And if somewhere overnight suddenly flames the light of love, I fly to it through all the bad weather, to burn candles in the flame. But it is better to live like that, freezing, I’m alone with my? Let it be better, to the death that is divided, all the best in themselves will save. And I carry where not knowing, to burn in a flame to burn. Let it be better to live dreaming than to live, so that only die ".
(from my novel "Alien strange incomprehensible extraordinary strangers" on the site New our literature