Myanmar. Buddha in Burma
The capital of Myanmar Yangon is often called "City of Buddha", so much in it buddhist shrines and monuments. The main one – Stupa Swedagon and its temple complex. Decorated with precious stones Golden Stupa Stupa visible from everywhere. Therefore, it is almost impossible to get lost in a multi-million dollar yangon. Entrance to the territory of the temple complex is open to everyone. True, there is one limitation. Located on the territory of the stroke, pagodas and monasteries can only barefoot. Many tourists from Europe and America is very confused. Still here walks a huge number of people. You never know what … Burmesers themselves believe: on this earth, there was once a stagnation of the Buddha himself. Stand bare, so walking here in shoes – it means to desecrate the holy earth.
Stupa – these are domed structures, symbolizing the teachings of the Buddha. They usually serve as storage facilities Buddhist shrines, but often erected in honor of the significant events related to the life of the Buddha and his students. Part of the stupid complex hide the sacred buddhist texts. In several mandated vessels with fragments of enlightened clothing – so with Sanskrita you can translate the word "Buddha". Under the Swedagon themselves, a vessel with a hair teacher is buried, so it is here – the main shrine. Stupa usually grinds the spire, in shape resembling an umbrella. This is a symbol of protection against rays of ignorance. Bells raised on it are designed to drive away evil demons.
All sixty-eight stars surrounding the main one are gilded, and the Swedigon will be covered with gold sheets on all its almost standard height. Only men can rise to the main stage. Such discrimination is associated with the fact that according to Buddhist canon in this life, a woman in principle cannot achieve enlightenment. The path to it will open only if in one of the future rebirths it will be a man. On the territory of the complex, bells are awesome everywhere – low, above the earth itself. People are suitable and hit in them lying near the wooden beast. Tun Svena, Secretary of the Board of Trustees of Stupa Swedagon: "We have belief: if, making a donation, make a desire and hit the bell three times – it will surely come true".
Buddhist shrines in Myanmar many. Those that are relatively close to the capital, took me to show Faru. He is Arab and Muslim on religion, so I even had doubt – is it worth it as a guide as far from the Buddhism of man. But Faruch hurried to calm me: "I know everything here – the profession obliges. How – in no way for twenty years I drive tourists". From Yangon to Kyutko city around two hundred kilometers. There is a golden mountain – the most revered in Burma Buddhist shrine. On the way I drive to Peg. Once this town was the capital of moneless countries, one of the most ancient peoples inhabiting Myanmar. Today I am known mainly thanks to the temple of Swedal. It is the biggest in Myanmar, the statue of the lying Buddha.
Buddha will relax on the right side, left hand on the thigh, right – under his head. In this posture, reaching Great Nirvana, he accepted earthly death. This giant statue was vagueless with a small thousand years ago. Six-meter Buddha feet are gilded, they are depicted so-called life wheel. According to Buddhists, a person does not die, but reborn. And the righteous can be reborn in a deity, and a sinner, for example, in reptile. The highest goal is to achieve nirvana – absolute rest and enlightenment – and thereby break out of the cycle of rebirth. It just symbolizes the wheel of life.
The area of the bus station in Kyietko was braked by pilgrims. People literally storming public transport that goes to the Golden Mount. Private machines travel to the Golden Mount. Need to sit on the minibus. Minutes here are a light bulk truck with an open body, which is stuffed to thirty people. Riding on the mountain serpentine in such conditions – the entertainment is not pleasant. Turns on the turns so that it’s shy to fly overboard. I expected that we would bring us to the very golden grief, but the driver landed the passengers on the outstanding approaches to it. On a private car and in fact, not to get to the Golden Mount, but also drivers who have an official state license will take people not to the mountains itself, but only before its foot, and then you already need to walk on foot. This is somewhere forty five – fifty.
At the foot of home porter, ready to deliver to the top and you and your luggage. But only wealthy pilgrims and tourists enjoy their services. On the way to the top of the fact and the case are traders offering local "energy drink" – Sugar cane juice, which is perfectly restored. Here traded with all sorts of balms, ointments and souvenirs, often nothing to do with the shrine. Almost an hour in the mountain at such a heat – a serious test. But for all the torment I was more than rewarded.
Here it is, the same Kyytechi, Golden Rock, or just a golden mountain. It seems the trunk of this huge, hung over the abyss of the Voon, and it will fly down, but the stone somehow keeps such a position since time immemorial. Korytech Pagoda Pagoda: "Based on this pagoda, directly in the mountain itself, there are sacred hair of the Buddha, because of the stone and is already two and a half thousand years. And just like the same". Burmese called the Gold Mountain "Pagoda old hermit". Farm of Buddhists call any construction or even a natural object associated with their cult. Stone really in shape resembles a shaved head of an old hermit. Perhaps the one who, according to legend, left three of his hair Buddha himself. Kytechie is for Burmese Buddhists of a kind of Mecca. At least once in life on the Golden Mount considers every debt every. Pilgrims, even the poorest, be sure to donate money on gilding stone.
After Yangon and Kyteko, the third largest Buddhist in Burma – the ancient capital of the kingdom of the city of Bagan. Before it is already on the car you will not reach. From Yangon is two hours of summer in northeast. Founded in the XI century by the king of Anuthukha, Bagan seems to consist of one stupas and temples. As a means of movement on the Bagan, I chose the most environmentally friendly – bike. To drive around all the pagodas of the city, probably, and the month is not enough. They are at least four thousand. One of the highest stacks of Bagan – Shvi San to – Golden Sacred Buddha hair. To see this hair, unfortunately, it is impossible, it is closed somewhere in the steps itself, but you need to go here, at least then to assess the scale of the local architecture.
Among the ancient pagodas of the Bagan is especially highlighted by a swissagon. Stupa was built in the XI century. In Reliquarian, placed inside it, are the tooth of the Buddha, as well as fragments of his frontal bone and clavicle. The authenticity of these items causes greater doubts if only because there are many countries in the world who apply to the possession of exactly the same relics. Believers this, however, little confuse. For them, the swissagon is one of the main Buddhist shrines.
On attendance with her can only be compared to the temple of Ananda Piya. Snow White Temple Ananda is five minutes drive from Swaljigon. Covered galleries lead to four inputs. The most remarkable of them – Western. If you enter the temple of Ananda Payya from the west side, you can see the stone circle on which the Buddha feet are printed. It seemed to me that they were somewhat vigilant, and I asked the abbot of the temple, as a man, and Buddha was a man, and not the deity, could leave such traces. San Taine, abbot of the temple Ananda: "Buddha feet appear far from every temple. They sent us as a sign that this temple is distinguished by special holiness. And the present Buddha legs, of course, were the most common size.
XI-XII century – the heyday of Buddhist architecture, intensive construction. But, no matter how paradoxically, this takeoff caused the decline of the Bagan. For the construction of majestic temples, and stupas required a vigorous amount of brick. To burn it, cut down the surrounding forests, gradually minimize them. Devoid of natural protection, once fertile lands turned into a desert, and the edge of the depth. Today, Bagan lives mainly at the expense of pilgrims and tourists, which more from the year becomes more. Once upon a time having been in this city, it is impossible to forget it, it has some amazing attraction.