Mushrooms in Fontainebleau
The mushroom season ends. We widdled themselves on damp autumn forests and edges, filling baskets and buckets, how to whom we are lucky, Boroviki, raw materials and thirsty. Few in Russia inhabitants indifferent to this national sport; Even less – indifferent to mushroom kitchen. In this with us, perhaps, only Poles can be compared.
But other people of Europe also are interested in mushrooms, albeit less, and each in its own way. For example, the Swedes, big fans of forest walks, – and the Swedish forests are abounding mushrooms, – they are almost not collectable and do not know, counting everything, except chanterelles and white. At the same time, chanterelles are much higher than Borovikov. Germans, even more fanatical fans of walking walking, the collection of mushrooms are interested even less and also recognize only chanterelles and white. British "Macromycets" generally not eaten and, accordingly, do not collect. The same applies to the Dutch. Those generally suspect all mushrooms, except for artificially grown champignons, in poisonism.
Italians are less picky and consider edibles a much greater amount of mushroom varieties. Wrong to think that there are no mushrooms in the southern countries. On the Apennine Peninsula, especially in mountain forests, there are many more. There are also in Greece, and in Spain, but there is a local population, as far as I know, the gastronomic micrology does not do. In this sense, I do not quite understand where such a dish has come from "Greek Mushrooms" – in acute tomato sauce. After all, they are preparing exclusively from champignons, and somehow it is difficult to imagine that Greek peasants, sheeps and winemakers will grow in the old days in the basements of champignons.
From Western Europeans, the French are the biggest lovers of all sorts of fungi. But basically "I love to eat, and so – no". In vegetable shops all year round there are different varieties, depending on the season. Naturally, there are always champignons. By the way, in French generally all mushrooms are called "Champignons", from the word "Champo" – "field", But champignons-agarics in a wild state and grow in the fields. The same that the ours call "Champignon", Wears name "Champignons De Paris", "Paris champignons". It seems that it was in this city that they learned to raise mushrooms of this species in the basements. Paris stands on limestone, and cellars in it a huge amount.
All year for sale and other cultivated species – grayish yellow oysters ("clavaires"), gray-blue pleurrents, milder "May mushrooms" ("Coule-Melles"), as well as a sufficiently threatening view, slightly similar to chanterelles, but more elongated and with a deep funnel-shaped hat of iscin-black "Pipes of death" ("Trompettes de la Mort"). And in the summer there are a wide variety of forest mushrooms – white, butter, boomes (which are all called "Cepes" and "bolets"), chanterelles, curls, freight, sometimes widespread and even raw.
Eat the French and mushrooms, who often even highly diffused ours are considered to be loyaded – some kinds of agaroves, "Navigari", young "Grandfather Tabak", Psallets and Gases, which in our and names are not because of an explicit failure. Thanks to Gallic culinary curiosity, exotic Chinese "Black" and wood mushrooms and golden "Schitake" from Japan. And, of course, truffle, the most expensive and delicious mushroom having two varieties – white and black, the second is even more expensive. They grow in oak forests of the south and south-west of France, underground, they are searched with specially trained dogs and pigs. Mushrooms in France, except cultivated, is generally expensive pleasure, they are much more expensive than very good meat or delicacy fish.
French cuisine, unlike ours, almost does not know dishes where mushrooms would be the main component. They are used primarily for cooking sauces and gravy to a variety of dishes – and meat, and from the bird, and even fish. And sometimes in very strange for our combinations – for example, veal under blackberry sauce, white mushrooms or chanterelles and under port. But it turns out remarkably delicious. I will give a few more examples. Raw scallops ("Coquilles St. Jacques") with truffles; Duck with champignons, swine sausages with "Morto" and tomatoes; "Supreme" from chicken under forest mushrooms; squid stuffed with greens and mushrooms. Mushrooms are used and for the manufacture of pate and casserole. One of the main delicacies of French cuisine – "Foie Gras" (fat goose liver) with truffles. Raw champignons are often used as ingredient for salads. As well as mushrooms are used for all sorts of baked products like pies – Although French "Pies" Not at all like our – pancakes ("Crepes") and "QUIISHES", French pizza analogue.
But, perhaps, bypassing ours in terms of mushroom fantasy, the French do not know salted and pickled mushrooms at all. In stores, however, sold "Mushrooms in brine" ("en saumur"), but this is a rather strange, almost inedible product. Mushrooms are very wide, pasteurized and placed in a tasteless, very weak brine. If you try to cook them or fry, they completely lose the taste. With great difficulty, adding salts and spices, they can be brought to something very remotely resembling our saline mushrooms. But in general, mushroom snacks, so cute our heart, can sometimes buy in Jewish, Polish and our shops.
I could never understand where there is an abundance of mushrooms in French stores. To grow forest mushrooms on the plantations yet, no one has yet learned, it is impossible to keep them for a long time – it means that they are unlikely to be brought from afar, from the same our or Poland.
The fact is that the Frenchman who goes to the forest on the mushrooms – a rarity. For many hours, passing through the forests in this country, in different regions, indulging in their favorite lesson, I met my colleagues a few times "Mushroom hunt". And mushrooms in these forests are more than in Russia. They grow in wet hardening armor of Normandy, on the hills of Champagne and Alsace and, accordingly, in the mountains – in Vogzakh, Yura, in the Alps and Pyrenees. I must say it sometimes amazes. For example, a mushroom trip to Seven Mountains, located in the south of the country, close to Montpellier. Half an hour drive from the beaches of the Mediterranean Sea, along the burden of the hot sun, covered with olive groves and vineyards, past white towns with tiled roofs, Roman ruins and ancient abbey, and suddenly, rising not so high in the mountains, find yourself in the present Mushroom Forest. With firings, birch, cool grass. Here and there they look like hats mushrooms.
Mushrooms ride mostly people from Russia and Poland. Around Paris, unfortunately, good forests almost left, although even in the Boulogne and Vincenne forests adjacent to the city, sometimes you can find something. More often instead of mushrooms, however, empty cans from Coca-Cola come across, condoms used syringes and other trash. Sometimes I came up onto the stumps that brought over. But to be happy to wander through the forest, you need to drive away from the city.
A favorite place to travel on mushrooms among our Parisians is Fontainebleau Forest, located kilometers in eighty south of Paris. These places are still famous for the magnificent castle, built in the XVI century by the King of Francis I, where the famous famous in the history of painting "School Fontainebleau", as well as vineyards where excellent grapes are growing "SHASSLA".
This forest is quite large, it can be wandering for hours and almost no one. The French do not like to go from the tracks at all and prefer the legs do not bother, and sit on the terrace of a cafe and admire grace because of the table. Basically, the forest is deciduous, although pines come across, and – sometimes – ate. If you succeed, you can dial a good yield of white, boosynovikov and stabber. Many oils, mokhovikov, raw materials and other waves and twin. And closer to the fall – in France, it starts almost a month later than in Russia – an abundance of.
Going along the mushrooms, it is necessary to keep in mind that in no case cannot be closed in forests belonging to individuals. That you are on the border of private property, notify signs with threatening inscriptions, and sometimes barbed wire. There is always a chance to run into the owner or guard, on the scandal, or even a solid penalty. In addition, in some national forests and reserves, the collection of mushrooms is prohibited, what announcements sign. But mostly almost everywhere mushrooms can be collected – if, of course, do not engage in industrial fees. There are laws prohibiting it to do without a special license. But, I repeat, I just did not see any professional mushrooms in France. Where they produce their mbosets – I have no idea.
If in the forest you meet someone with a bucket or a bag and a knife, carefully looking at your feet, then I repeat, the likelihood is that you can say hello in my native language. Even if it turns out the Pole, he will understand you.
The same, however, occurs in the USA: natural Americans are not what mushrooms, but in general, do not go to the forest – prefer to arrange picnics with a barbecue in specially reserved places. As well as in Israel, where in pine landings next to Jerusalem after spring rains appear on the light of the army of the army. These pine groves are filled with our former compatriots, in which aborigines are discouraged-"Sabra" and immigrants from Maghree and Ethiopia.
Interesting and the next fact, although, like any partial fact, he is difficult to generalize. Once in Moscow I made friends with a Frenchman who taught at the university. The our language and culture Mark knew perfectly, loved almost all our, and we went to mushrooms with him several times. I must say that he led himself at all as a Danish professor from "Autumn Marathon": An occupation clearly liked him, he quickly mastered the art of distinguishing the types of mushrooms and find good locations. Sometimes I even started to envy him when he caught my nose from under the nose. A particularly successful copy. When we met again in France and I suggested to go on the mushrooms, he agreed. We went to Fontainebleau. Once near the cafe on the edge, Mark told me:
– Listen, you go, and I sit here, "Pastisa" drinking.
And finally, about one form of a mushroom hunt that has no relation to all of the above. O "Magic", hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Use narcotic mushrooms – an oldest tradition that has existed everywhere, from Andes to Japan islands. Our ancestors also did not disperse "Fungi eat". And the scandinavians, now relating to mushrooms with suspicion, in antiquity showed great interest. Especially in the annex to the military case. They had, so to speak, "Absolute weapon" – Warriors called "Berserki". These heroes were found "Magic mushrooms", Then they were tightly tied with straps. Before the start of the battle, they were put forward, and then it was necessary to cut the straps to cut, put the berserch in each hand on the topor and a strong kick to send towards the opponent. Without this guide push, he could pay his rage against comrades. Enemies, seeing such "tank", Usually scattered. Premium over the centuries, scandinavis, apparently, just in case decided not to risk and with ordinary mushrooms. In the ancient Celts, such mushrooms were also an important part of national culture. Irish was always bottled. In the French, the British, Germans and other Europeans, addiction to hallucinogenic mushrooms seems to be disappeared, but again appeared in our age due to the interest in all sorts of exotic practices of Latin American and Asian origin. So now, having met in the French forest, do not think that he is sure to seek white mushrooms.
In discharge "Magic mushrooms" consists of several types of flying and mushrooms from the kind "Psilocybe". This type of addiction is very dangerous, since, firstly, sometimes, like LSD, it extremely quickly leads to irreparable changes in the psyche, and secondly, the mushrooms are very variable, and the harvest may not be a narcotic, but simply poisonous. Collect better oil and boosts, and cook them at least with sour cream, even with oysters.