There are various versions of the origin of the name Fuji. One of them connects him with an Aynian word "Fire". In any case, Fuji fire is directly related, since it is a volcano with a diameter of about 500 meters and a depth of 200 meters. The most destructive eruptions occurred at 800, 864 and 1707. It is known that during the last eruption of Edo, located 120 km from Fuji, was covered with a layer of ash in 15 cm.
Fuji – Acting Volcano. He began to erupt about 100,000 years ago, gradually gaining a height of 3,000 meters ejected by himself. Approximately 10,000 years ago, a new wave of eruptions began, accompanied by numerous lava flows, which gave the world of its current ideal shape. The last eruption from the main crater on top of the mountain ended 1,300 years ago, the nonethelessly imperceptible mini-eruptions of the adjacent mountain range continue to this day. The first historical reminder of Fuji eruption is listed in the 781st year, and in the future 17 large eruptions of this volcano recorded. The last major eruption of Crater Hoejsee, located in the middle of the mountain, occurred in 1.707. The eruption was so strong that even Edo (the old Tokyo name), which is at a distance of more than 100 kilometers, was covered with "ash snow".
Since then, for more than 300 years, the volcano has been inactive, but it is not known anyone when it is re-activated.
Fuji is not only a sample of natural harmony and symbol of Japan, it is a visible embodiment of the unrealized relationships of traditions and modernity in the life of the Japanese people.
Japanese, in which generation generation generations that lived by the time of centuries who lived with common rhythms with nature are able to contemplate the frozen eternity of the beloved mountain, remembering the well-known verses and legends and penetrating the state of peace and enlightened absence.
According to legend, Fuji arose in one night in 285 g. to N.NS. And, being the highest vertex, took the lead in the cult of the mountains, which originated on the Japanese islands in deep antiquity. However, at first, not everything was smooth formed for the beautiful Mountain. During his wanders, Moya-Gami-but Mikoto arrived at sunset on Mount Fuji and began to ask for overnight stay. The spirit of Fuji refused him, for that night was to celebrate Nineame (Autumn Thanksgiving), and therefore the deity was underestimated. And then the great ancestor cursed the spirit of Fuji and announced that henceforth, for the fact that he refused to refuge to her ancestor, Mount Fuji would forever covered in snow so that no one could climb on her and serve the spirit of the mountain.
Stripping from ancient legend, we can say that the anger of the Grand ancestor, which covered Fuji Snow, significantly promoted her beauty. The worship of the sacred mountain, which originated at the early stage of Japanese history, of course, caused the desire to climb to the top and worship her spirit. Such an opportunity provides summer time when the snow covered Fuji. The documentary is preserved that in 1500 g. In June, a large group of pilgrims rose on Fuji. Fuji-Co. was organized a little later, a society, which united Fuji admirers, believed that this mountain was "Beginning of the sky and land", Pipple of the nation and the basis of national statehood.
Climbing Fuji has become popular among ordinary Japanese in Edo era (1,603 – 1.867). For men who lived in Edo (Tokyo), the climb was a ceremony that had to need to accomplish for their lives. In the period there were already more than 800 organizations who were ascent on Fuji. Pilgrims dressed in white clothes, which symbolized the purity of the heart and thoughts, and had long peas, because the rise required considerable effort. The famous saying says: "One who has never risen on Fuji, is a fool, the same who rose twice, – twice the fool". It is understood that it is necessary to make an ascent necessary, as it leaves deep impressions, but the difficulties at the same time are such that they should not experience them for the second time.
Fuji-Co. followers read the Spirit ("kami") Fuji, who received the name of Sangen Daibosatsu, considering him a patron in all everyday affairs, including in business. The Fuji deity has other names, for example, Asama or Cono-Ha-on Sakuyimeh ("Princess forcing trees bloom"). According to the Shinto referee, it ferry on the luminous cloud above the crater and protects the mountain from the bad. In 806. Fuji Fuji Sangan-Jinzia Temple, dedicated to the goddess of Mountain, was built on Fuji, Konhan Sakui-Hime. Interesting the fact that in spite of the fact that the Divine of the Mountain is a woman, climbing Fuji women were forbidden to 1,800.
Later, her image was embodied in a young girl with a wide-headed hat and a big branch of wisteria on his shoulder. Her name – Fuji Hime – Imagined the name of the mountain and the name of Wisteria. "Girl’s dance with glycine" first entered the repertoire of the Kabuki Theater, where popularity was acquired, and then the image of a girl with glycine became common in engraving and painting, as well as in the form of dolls.
Fuji is available for climbing only two months a year – from July 1 to August 31. But these days on the opportunity to stay with the famous mountain alone should not count. To the top will have to go in a dense crowd of Japanese and foreigners. Dozens of thousands of people come out on Stormi Fuji. The entire rise is divided into areas labeled stations equipped with places of recreation, toilets, stalls with food and drinks. But usually the climb starts from the 5th station where you can get to a taxi or bus. And then the staff in the hands – and go ahead! Depending on the physical condition "Alpinist"-Blump lift can take from 5 to 7 hours, and descent down – from 2 to 3 hours. Many Japanese and foreigners use this opportunity.
The Japanese symbols Fuji includes such fundamental concepts as a country, nation, beauty, divine purity, harmony. Fuji is not just a wonderful natural object, but also a very significant phenomenon in Japanese culture. And especially pleases Fuji, if you dream on New Year’s Eve, because it promises well-being, health and happiness for the whole coming year.
Five lakes Fuji
On the northern side of the foot of the volcano there are 5 mountain lakes – Motosuko, Södyzinko, Saico, Kawagutiko, Yamanako ("Ko" – in Japanese – Lake). All lakes – volcanic origin, which emerged as a result of the volcanic eruption, with a magnificent view of Fuji. The first three lakes are interconnected under Earth, which generates a version that once they accounted for one large lake, which was further divided by Lava flows.
"Singing" Cave of Tomidak and Ice "Cave of Navawa
On the slopes Fuji there is a large number of large and small caves, which appeared as a result of volcanic eruptions. The most frequently visited by tourists of the cave – "Singing" Tomidak Cave (201 meter in length, named because the wind "sings" songs blowing through the cave) and the "Ice" cave of disruption (153 meters, the temperature in the cave of no more than 3 degrees heat, you can see icy stalactites even in the summer).
Place "Osino Hakkay"
Very beautiful place in the eastern foot Fuji. Here you can see the ponds of perfect purity, – the snow that melts on top passes all natural "cleanings" for 80 years, after which it comes out in the form of delicious mineral water in the ponds at the village of Osino. The place is listed in the Register of Natural Treasures of Japan, as well as in the list of 100 pure mineral sources of the country.
Fuji Fuzzy Fuzzy Festival (26, 27 August)
Fuji’s climbing period ends with a grandiose fiery festival, which is held in Fuji Esida on August 26 and 27. The holiday is dedicated to the closure of the lifting period. At 4 in the evening of August 26, the sacred Palaankin "Omikoshi" together with the Special Palankin "Mikaga", which mimics the mountain and weighs about a ton, carry along the main street of the city, from the Segan’s temple to the special sacred place "Otabi-Dooro", where the palanquins are installed on "divine rest". At the same time, 70 huge torches in the main street light up 70 huge torches, 3 meters high (volume – 90 centimeters), as well as a huge number of small torches and fires that turn the city in the fiery sea. The holiday takes place until late evening and is based on the legend about the goddess of Mount Fuji "Konokhan Sakua Hime-No-Mikoto", which allegedly gave birth to one of the princes of the country. This goddess to this day is considered a patronage of lungs and defender from fires.
In the second half of the next day, specific ritual actions are conducted above the palanquins, after which they are pierced again through the entire city and return to the synthospic temple of Sangen.
Climbing on Fuji
From the center of Tokyo to Mount Fuji can be reached in 2 hours through the high-speed highway. Lifting to the mountain begins with the road Subaru Line, coming from the foot of the mountain to the fifth station. The thirty-tilometer Subaru highway was laid in 1964. Requires 30 – 40 minutes to overcome this distance.
The tradition of the division of the mountain climb on the 10 station, which remains and still, originates from the religious practice that has established in the Middlecakes in Pilgrims who climb the mountain. At each of the 10 stations (on top there is a 10th station) there is a column on which the station number and height above sea level is written.
Already from the first station, a clearly volcanic landscape is noticeable: black stones of the Basalt Basalt and Little Size, Lava and Gravel. The relief along the road unequal, on the right and left one after the other there are so-called parasitic volcanoes, which sometimes interfere with reviews. It is said that after the formation of the mountain in the present form, the eruptions most often happened on the slopes and at the foot. Now there are about 60 parasitic volcanoes located almost on one line, which can be burned from the North-West to the south-east through the top of the mountain.
During the rise, overcoming the difference in height 1500m, the replacement of vegetation is clearly visible. Since Mount Fuji is a newly formed volcano, it is covered with a huge amount of lava and gravel, and does not have enough soil, which can hold water after rain and melting snow. Surface of the Earth of Pyrist and Duc. The slopes of the mountain often (especially in winter) are blown by strong winds. Plants are difficult to grow in such conditions. The higher the climb, the lower the temperature. On Mount Fuji vegetation is distributed vertically. However, the flora affects not only the height above sea level, but also the characteristics of the soil, the components of the lava and T.D. On the slopes of the mountain places there are clean forests from one tree of trees.
At the foot of the mountain, at the very beginning of Subaru Road, there is a beautiful forest from some Japanese red pines. This forest grows on the Lava stream, frozen after the eruption of 1083. As the vertex moves in the direction of the vertex there are different plants.
Mountain belt (900m – 1600m above sea level): Japanese red pine, larch, birch, cypress, beech toothed and other trees.
Subalpiic belt (1600m – 2300m): Supported trees such as Tsuga, fir, rowan, larch, Rhododendron and others.
Alpine belt (above 2400m): The forest border is located at an altitude of 2300 – 2400m above sea level. Above 2400m practically no trees. The slopes are covered with lava and gravel. For the Alpine zone of Japan, creeping pines are usually considered typical vegetation, but there are no them on Mount Fuji. Instead, there are sometimes creeping larchs on the mountain.
Subaru’s road ends on the fifth station, which, from ancient times, people called "the border between heaven and earth" or "the beginning of the sky and the Earth". It may be because of the extraordinary landscape like the moon. Upstairs absolutely no forests. Here are only naked brown-purple land from lava and lapilli. Although it’s from here to the top of Fuji hand to file, in fact, even physically strong people will need 5-6 hours to overcome this path. From the end of July to mid-August on the fifth station, many people gather in the afternoon. Reaching up to the eighth or ninth station, they stop for a short rest in the huts, to resume the next day to resume the climb, so that, according to the tradition of pilgrims, to meet the sunrise on top. This tradition exists from the Middle Ages when Mount Fuji was the object of religious worship. Every year during the peak of the season of ascent, from the 6th to the 17th of August, the administration of the Prefecture of Yamanasi carries out traffic control, forbidden the entry of private cars to Subaru’s road.
If you look down from the parking lot of the station, then among the endless forests the water flashes the water of five lakes located on the northern slope of the mountain. Behind the blue mountains are still far away by the chains of the peaks of the Japanese South and Northern Alps.
Most enthusiasts begins to climb from 5 Kawaguchi Station. In numerous shops at the beginning of the route, it is sold to objects that will need in the way. This is a bottle of water, perhaps a hat from the sun and staff with linking bubrels or flag. At each station on the staff, a memorable stamp is burned on the staff, and the Bubares are happily rushed into the gate of Thoria Sanctuary on top. You do not need the experience of mountain asheams, steel cables are stretched in dangerous places for which you can stay. For this approach, regardless of the time of year, you will need a warm waterproof jacket, gloves, strong shoes or shoes for hiking and woolen clothing. And do not forget the flashlight! We’ll have to rise at night.
If you start the rise from the 5th in the morning, then the pilgrims reaches the peaks and go back to the 5th level in the evening, but usually everyone starts the rise in the evening, they make a hat for a few hours in the huts on the 8th or 9th levels , after which – somewhere at 2 o’clock in the morning they start the final throw on the top to meet there the sunrise and after that (to dinner) go back to the 5th level. The temperature on the top of the mountain even at the hottest month of the year (August) does not rise above 6 degrees, and at night sometimes goes down and below zero, so when the lift do not forget to take warm things with you!
Lifting can be made and not only in the specified summer period, but in this case it is necessary to undergo a long procedure for obtaining permission in the local police station. Despite the fact that Fuji from far looks like a very beautiful and smooth mountain, in fact, the lifting road is quite dangerous, especially in winter, that almost every year leads to falls of burcks, underestimating the risk of lifting on this symbol of Japan.
Tourists pass through the Stone Gate of Thoria, a couple more steps, and the path leads to the 10th station. The vertex covered with dark stone fragments, resembles the surface of Mars. There is a meteorological station on the edge of the crater. Another 30 years ago there was only one little hut here, and now a small town appeared. In fog, rain or blizzard Tourists hide in the huts to warm around the oil oven. Here you can eat noodles or rice from Curry, however, it will cost that will be twice as expensive than 8 km. below and the quality of dishes is not the best. If you are not too lazy to drag overweight, take me with you. But for the ability to just sit and warm up in the hut, you still have to pay. Even ordinary bottled water here is twice as expensive. Many sleep in beds brought with them. Night in the mountains of short, but very cold, so do not remove the upper clothes. At 4 am everyone is running with lanterns to the street to take a place to love the sunrise.
When through the morning haze, painted by all the colors of the rainbow, the sun makes his way, the arms of the arms rises and from thousands of hearts is rummaged enthusiastic"Banzai! Banzai!". If the sky is clean, then in the mirrors of the mountain lakes you will see the beautyless description.
Information Center for Visitors Mount Fuji Fuji Visitors Center
Located at the very beginning of the Subaru Line highway. The center presents a variety of materials that in an accessible form will give tourists with general information about the world itself, nature, legends and legends associated with the volcano, as well as information for climbers planning to rise to Fuji. Here you can also purchase and souvenirs associated with this mountain. The center works without days off.
English-language information about the rise on Fuji:
Provided free of charge by phone. or fax in the tourist information center "Fuji Yosida" (8105) 5522-7000.
English-language information service with a forecast on an answering machine – 810555/23-000
Fuji Kiyuko Tel. (81 05) 5522-7112.
Information service for visitors Fuji Yoside 0555/1236