Montenegro – no longer quite Yugoslavia
All of the last decade with the Balkans received very unexpected news. Take at least the Balkan War of 1991-95, which began with collapse "Big Yugoslavia", When nations who actually speakers in one language, close in the culture and lifestyle and about 70 years have lived in one state, so violently grabbed each other, which almost drowned each other in blood. Or a recent crisis in Kosovo with the flight of hundreds of thousands of Albanians, bombing of Yugoslavia Aviation NATO, and then flee from Kosovo hundreds of thousands of Serbs.
And when the Ministry of Tourism of Montenegro in Moscow suggested "I" send correspondent to tell our readers (and, consequently, the potential guests of Montenegro), as nice in this country, you can relax, it was even a little surprising. Immediately the question arose: what they hope? After all, when a person is going to rest, he primarily thinks that instead of rest, not to get into some frighting, for example, under the actuat. You can not read the newspapers, but one thing is that Montenegro is Yugoslavia, causes the association, to rest in this country there are no.
And if they still read the newspaper, then Montenegro there are more and more often mentioned in a rather anxious context. Sometimes we can conclude that the Montenegrins are about to move with the Serbs, and the new Balkan war will break.
Many Montenegrins all these panic forecasts are extremely annoyed, and they even do not allow thoughts that armed conflict is possible between Serbia and Montenegro. Indeed, unlike other former republics "Big Yugoslavia" (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia), Montenegro did not quite consciously proclaim independence and retained state unity with the One-Soviet Orthodox Serbia, having formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with it with the capital in Belgrade.
In addition to Orthodoxy, Montenegrins with Serbs unites the community of language and general history, in particular, joint struggle with the Ottoman IGA. Moreover, the noticeable part of the Montenegrins generally considers himself "Mining serbami" – part of a single Serbian people. Therefore, during the war of 1991-95, the Montenegrins fought together with Serbs against their Catholics neighbors – Croats. But in the territory of Montenegro, there were no fighting and in general clashes, and here, unlike the same Croatia, you will not see the destruction and other traces of that war.
Montenegro got a little during the crisis in Kosovo – NATO aviation bombed the Military airfield and barracks in the Montenegrin capital Podgorica and some other objects. There were victims, but it does not matter any comparison with the bombings of the rest of Yugoslavia. NATO Aviation Montenegro consciously "Gazdila", not bombed, for example, refinery in the port of the bar. And the Montenegrins are, we can say, appreciate (which does not prevent them from responding about NATO military operation in expressions, to put it mildly, far from gratitude).
Why NATO Montenegro "Steel"?
Yes, because Montenegro is still not Serbia and even already "not really" Yugoslavia. Montenegro President Milo Jukanovich – Democrat and Liberal – has long been favored as an opponent of the President of the Allied Yugoslavia – the notorious Slobodan Milosevic. Milo Jukanovich always demanded democratic reforms both in Serbia and the Federation level. Condeming NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, he at the same time criticized Milosevic politics in Kosovo and opposed confrontation with the West.
In general, the National Bolshevik course of the Belgrade Dictator, which also suffers from Montenegro (in particular, due to the sanctions imposed against Yugoslavia by the World Community), does not suit the Montenegrin Government at all, proclaiming the course for building a democratic society with an open market economy and entry in European structures.
In the fact that Montenegro is already "Not really Yugoslavia" Make sure immediately as soon as you fly from Belgrade to Chernogorsk Airport Tivat, which is not far from which. Immediately notice that the form of the local police officers is not as in Belgrade. They, like American police, eight-kille caps. And they look at the Montenegrins somehow alike and awkwardly.
In the Allied Yugoslavia in parallel, two alphabets are used – Cyrillic and Latin, and Cyrillic for Serbian language is considered as if the main. But in Montenegro, in contrast, for example, from the same Belgrade, you can more often see signages and signs on Latin, than on Cyrillic.
And finally, most importantly – in Montenegro, a completely different currency is not Yugoslav Dinar, but a real German brand, including metal panenigi. And prices all are indicated in the Doychmark. The thing is that for more than half a year ago, the Montenegrin government brought the Montenegro from the generaligoslav financial space and introduced the conversion of the German brand in the republic. (Naturally, after the appropriate agreement with Germany.)
Dinars are also found, but only in the form of delivery. Chernogorsk friends will definitely warn you that to take delivery in dinars in the amount exceeding 1-2 stamps (1DM is approximately 22-25 dinarms), one should not – such a passing borders with the selling, caused by the natural desire to quickly sell from the hands of a non-convertible currency, which to the same should be removed from the appeal to Montenegro by the middle of the summer.
For the refusal to Dinara Montenegro was subjected to repression – the allied authorities actually introduced an economic blockade. Belgrade fell out charges "betrayal and indulgence enemies of Yugoslavia". In Montenegro, naturally, the voices of Montenegro came out even louder. Then, from Belgrade, there were already completely frank threats, after which in the foreign press they started talking about the possibility of power shares against the Montenegrin government up to the attempt to shift Jukanovich. NATO countries immediately warned Milosevic that in case of any aggressive actions against Montenegro, he will get about the same as in Kosovo.
Then the situation is somewhat discharged, but the fundamental disagreements are preserved, and the controversy often takes very sharp forms. So, in mid-May, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Montenegro Branko Lukovac stated that the Allied Yugoslavia stopped exist de facto. According to him, "Serbia uses the image to shed for the deception of the international community, convincing it that this is a joint state". The minister considers it necessary "finally destroy the illusion that Frame is a state that can represent Montenegro".
And recently, there was information that there was a plan in Belgrade "Constitutional reform", allowing Milosevich, whose second and deadline as an union president ends, remain in power even indefinitely. It is intended to eliminate the federal structure of the country, having created 10 cantons instead of the two Union republics, that is, to abolish Chernogorsk statehood. And then again "choose" Milosevic president already under the new Constitution. It is clear that Montenegro will never agree with this.
Against Montenegro and China will not stand
But Montenegrins can not agree with the fact that foreign tourists are afraid to go to them. And assure all the visits that the degree of tension in relationship with Belgrade is overly inflated by the press, and nothing threatens to foreign guests in their country.
For example, one of the guides accompanying our journalistic group, Ironically told that in Italy, where he visited shortly before our arrival, everyone was convinced that the tanks of the Federal Yugoslav Army were already driving on the streets of Chernogorsk. At the same time, the guide was persistently drawn: "Well, where are these tanks? You saw them?" Tanks, really, was not. And when I told him that at the entrance to Budva (one of the main sea resorts), I noticed the army column, consisting of a dozen trucks and one self-propeller, he began to assure me that self-propelled I could not see myself and just accepted for her One truck.
One ratio of weather does not and it would be stupid on the basis of what they saw any far-reaching conclusions. Most attention, in my opinion, it deserves such an argument that the Montenegrins most often led as proof of the impossibility of armed conflict with Belgrade – no one is going to force the separation of Montenegro from Yugoslavia, primarily because in Montenegro itself there is no consensus on this issue. Let me remind you, about half of the Montenegrins consider itself "Mining serbami".
The Minister of Tourism of Montenegro Vlado Mitrovich, meeting with us, answering the question of the correspondent "I" On the prospects for preserving political stability in Montenegro in the light of its difficult relationships with Belgrade, categorically stated that it completely excludes the possibility of any threat to tourists and the more war.
According to him, the Montenegrin government does not aim at reaching the composition of Yugoslavia, but only seeks to ensure the rights of Montenegro, guaranteed by the Union Constitution, the creation of a truly democratic federation and democratic reforms in fraternal Serbia, without which the normal relations of Union Yugoslavia with the international community are impossible. At the same time, Mr. Minister joked that the war is also impossible because there is against the Montenegrins known to their desperate courage and militancy, "not only Serbia, but also China will not stand!"
For our part, I can only confirm – everything looks quietly in Montenegro and calmly. Interestingly, during our stay in Budva, President Jukanovich himself rested there. And it could be seen by the mockery of the embankment or sumping beer in the Pirbar in the campaign of the spouse and only three guards.
There was no catchment, and ordinary citizens who walked along the embankment or dodged beer behind the neighboring tables, easily exchanged with their pretty young president jokes, stood his hand and even patted on the shoulder. It was very nice to watch democracy, so to speak, in action. At the same time, Jukanovich did not look at the president of the country, where the coup, occupation or war could happen.
Mosques, blacks and nudists
Actually sad, telling about Montenegro, stop at the unable political realities. This country is as if created in order to happily donate here from all sorts, including political, fuss. You can do it, of course, first of all on the sea.
The Adriatic coast of Montenegro, stretching 293 kilometers from the north to the south (from the Croatian to the Albanian border), recognized as the most environmentally friendly area of the Mediterranean. In the picturesque bays and fjords, among which the amazing kuli bay, crashed down the coast for a couple of tens of kilometers, are ancient cities, founded by more Illyrian pirates and the Romans. Herceg Novi, Risan, Perast, "Tourist capital" Coast Budva retained medieval appearance. In each of them, it is possible to stroll through the ancient streets and squares, where the Orthodox churches are peacefully adjacent to Catholic, or climb on the walls of the old fortress, which resembles foreign conquerors – venetians, French, Austrians and Turks who have once produced these places, but in the end of the forced Send from the freedom-loving Montenegrin Earth.
You see a completely different picture in Ultsin, that in the south of the country, on the border with Albania. Sometimes it seems that I got somewhere in the Middle East – dozens of mosques, reinforced by the speakers of the voices of Muzzyov, calling on Orthodox Muslims on prayer, White Fesquets of local residents. Long time Ultsin was the main supporting point of Ottoman Turkey on the Montenegrin coast. Hence the characteristic oriental flavor. In addition, about 80 percent of the population of the city – Albanians, most of which Muslims. At the same time, Albanians with Montenegrin and other local Christians are quite good neighborly.
Violas tell that the author was allegedly sold by the author "Don Quixote" Miguel Cervantes, captured by Algerian pirates, which Turks in the XVI century "Published" Ultsin for their participation in the maritime battle of Lepanto. In the old fortress, an area was preserved, where slaves were sold, and in the city the descendants of these slaves still live – the small community of the most real blacks, whose ancestors were brought here the same pirates.
All this exotic makes Ultsin one of the most attractive resorts. In addition, there is a 13-kilometer sandy beach. Montenegrins argue that this is the longest sandy beach in the world. And here is a paradox – despite the fact that the majority of the population of Ultsin Muslims, right under the city there is ADA Boyana – one of the world’s largest nudist "Reservations".
A few kilometers from her the border with Albania, and we were told, as in 1985, when Albania was still ruled by the fierce Stalinist regime, one German nudist, carried away by Windows surfing, was in Albanian territorial waters. Albanian Border Boat immediately took him to the boarding. Unfortunate, the death of frightened goals was planted in Kutuzku, where he naked and promoted a whole day until after long negotiations were not returned back.
Nudism – also a kind of exotic. First of all, for the Montenegrins themselves. The relative patriarchalness of the morals is still preserved, especially on the village. However, patriarchalness did not interfere with all seaside cities become quite modern resorts. Among them and the world famous St. Stephen is a chic hotel of the highest category, located on a small island in the fortress of the XV century.
From the fortress, of course, only an idle remained. Inside – luxurious rooms, pools, other amenities. There love to relax Hollywood "stars", Politicians of the highest rank and other cerafection celebrities Schiffer. However, in comfortable hotels, albeit such chic, equipped beaches and, of course, in stores, cafes and restaurants, both national and quite cosmopolitan, there is no shortage of other Montenegrin resorts.
Well, for those who have to focus on their health and can not pay due attention to a variety of and delicious Chernogorsk dishes, wonderful red guilt "Vrataz", grape, pear or apple "Lozo" (Rakia), always in the presence of healing air, hydrogen sulfide sea bathing and mineral springs. Also, near Herceg Novi, the world famous resort of Igaloie is again located – one of the world’s largest physiotherapy centers, wave therapy and rehabilitation.
On canyons and overgrowth
Montenegro is not only coast resorts. The name itself says that without the mountains do not do. And indeed, where the sea ends, the high mountains are started immediately, which are becoming even higher and cooler as they remove from the coast. Rocky peaks covered with eternal snow, bottomless abyss, drowning straight from stone cleft waterfalls – all this is not inferior to the mountain landscapes of the Swiss Alps on the beauty and majesty.
But there is in Montenegro what is not even in Switzerland – these are giant canyons whose depth in separate areas reaches 1.300 meters. Tara, Beer and Morach rivers, going down to the plain, split the mountains for tens of kilometers, creating a completely unique and mysterious world. When you go on a clinging slopes with a mountain serpentine, you get sensitive than in Oberland. Moreover, the mountain roads in Montenegro are much already swiss.
After one of the steep turns of the mountain serpentine, laid along the canyon of the Tara River, a stunning arched bridge appears in front of his eyes, peroxide from one rocky shore to another. This 150 meters high height bridge was built in 1939 and is an essential transport artery that connects the seaside part of Montenegro with its northern regions and Serbia.
During World War II, he was blown up by Chernogorsk partisans and restored only in 1946. When NATO bombed Yugoslavia, there was enough one bomb or rocket to destroy the bridge, thereby paralyzing the almost all of the Montenegro motor network. But NATO Aviation to bomb the bridge did not become – "sparing" The approach manifested itself here.
Now, in addition to its main destination, the bridge is going to use for a very peculiar tourist attraction – jumping. This is when you are tied to your feet to a spring rubber cable, and then you fly down your head with a breathtaking height. Looking from the bridge to there, where at the depths of the River Tara river at the depth, it is difficult to imagine that there will be many wishes to be cut into the abyss. But Montenegrins for the future attractiveness of this extreme entertainment look with optimism.
Yes, and in general, to the extreme varieties of recreation and tourism in Montenegro include with great attention – in canyons there are routes for rafting, in a large width of mountaineering and mountain tourism, mountain bikes, and in winter – skiing.
The bridge the road is splitting, and one of its branches leads to Chernogorsk ATOS – the most high-mountainous region of the country. In Montenegro, 48 vertices whose height exceeds 2.000 meters above sea level. Some of them are sharp, rocky, others resemble huge dome or giant mythological monsters. Walks all this beauty covered by eternal snow and pine forests with 500-year-old trees, Mount Durmitor (2.525 meters). Mountain gave the name to one of the four Chernogorsk reserves, which is under the protection of UNESCO.
DurMurt Reserve Center – Located at Altitude 1.465 meters Resort Zhablyak – the most high-altitude city on the entire Balkan Peninsula. First of all, it is a winter, ski resort with well-equipped tracks and lifts. And in January-February there are severe frosts – up to 30 degrees below zero. But the ski season continues until the end of April, and in some places you can ride in June.
In the spring and summer in the gown bored either – mountaineering or just walks on labeled mountain paths, hiking in glacier caves with stalagmites and stalactites, finally swimming in a black lake, which is three kilometers from Zhablyak (in total in Chernogorsk Athos 18 lakes).
Black Lake is located in a picturesque basin of the glacier sole of Medez – one of the peaks of the mountain range Durmitor. Actually, this is not one, but two lakes – a large and small, connected narrow. The water level in both lakes is not always the same, and then the duct turns into a jumper through which water from a higher located small lake flows into a large lake, forming a semblance of a waterfall. Locals call black lake "Eyes Gor" and argue that it is the most beautiful in Montenegro.
In the gills for tourists, hotels and hotel chambers, Campinggi, something like tourist camps with small wooden houses and picturesque restaurants and Harchevni, where home cooking dishes. Be sure to emphasize that all the eats – "Domsche", That is from its own products. And not only a dish, but also wine, and a fearful "Lozo".
Holiness on the scalars
Without which Montenegro is completely unthinkable, so these are mountain Orthodox monasteries. Beer, Morace, Piples of Jurjja, Savina and one of the most famous – Ostrog Monastery, named so in honor of St. Vasily Ostrog, the Wonderworker and Healer.
It seems that the monastery is simply hanging on a high sheer cliff and it is impossible to get to it. But you can even get on a large tourist bus, which is incomprehensible as fit on a narrow mountain serpentine and not only does not fall into the abyss, but also fits in turns, having learned to touch off the oncoming machines around the edge of the abyss. We must pay tribute to Chernogorsk drivers – it is directly some acrobats on wheels. The drivers themselves claim to thank Holy Vasily – because of his patronage on the road to the monastery never had a single accident.
The monastery consists of two parts of the upper and lower progress. To the lower stroke located at an altitude of 800 meters above sea level, only can be reached by tourist bus. To the top progress that at an altitude of more than 1.000 meters, you have to get on minibuses, because the road there is so narrow that the skill of drivers no longer helps.
The Church of the Holy Trinity is located in the Lower Ostrog, and in the top immediately two churches – the Ascension of the Virgin and the Honest Cross. Under the harsh glands of black-haired, dark-haired monks with icon painting by the Byzantine persons, visitors, bending and peeling, entering low doors, kiss a cross from a priest, sullenly asking: "Orthodox?" (Orthodox?") And then applied to the cross, launched next to the cancer where the relics of St. Vasily are stored. However, nonsense Christians seem to be also driven. Among us was a Catholic and he honestly admitted this, but inside the church and to the kissing of the cross was allowed.
At the exit from the church, one of the monks suddenly asked me with a rather strict look: "Brothers-Rusia?" From surprise, and maybe with a fright I for some reason answered in German: "JA, JA!" Then the monk asked in our almost without accent: "Where are you from?". Hearing this time the answer in our – "From Moscow", The monk turned to the brethren and laity, crowded in line to the source of the Holy Water, and hazardly headed: "Brothers-Rusia!" Under the arms of the Sakelovo "Rusia Brothers, Brothers-Russia!", And everyone slept.
Attitude in Montenegro (and in Serbia) to Russia and our – a separate topic. Fraternal feelings that are tested there to ours – by no means myth. There are many reasons for this – these are general Slavic roots, and Orthodox faith, and centuries-old cultural, and just human ties. And, of course, leaving during the Ottoman IGA perception "Orthodox mother of Russia" As a century-old intercession, the most powerful ally, which will always help his one-terrain brothers. You can even say that this attitude to Russia has become part of the mentality of Serbs and Chernogorstsev.
The personnel of the spiritual connection between Montenegro and Russia is the monastery in the historical capital of Montenegro Cetinic, where one of the main shrines of the Christian world is stored – Dandy John the Baptist. The shrine belonged to the house of Romanov and during the Civil War was taken by the Widdling Empress Maria Fedorovna (Mother Nicholas II) in Copenhagen. The Empress wished the shrine to be kept in Orthodox Earth and handed it to the Montenegrin Metropolis. Since then, she is in the old capital of Montenegro. It should be added that our monarchs have always patronized the Montenegrin Church – a regular cash subsidy was paid, and the treasury of the Cetini Monastery is hardly half consisted of the gifts of our emperors.
There would be nothing wrong with all this if the long-standing historical and cultural ties would not be used by the nationalists of both countries to oppose Russia and Yugoslavia to the rest "Uninosty" peace, "Unceous, Heretical West". By the way, it was in this spirit that the speeches of a young priest who drove us along the Cetinsky Monastery were constructed and with a farewell to expressing confidence that Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, will reside this bad in every sense, uniting in every sense, uniting "Unified Veslavyan Confederation".
Probably the priest really believed in what he said. But this is not easier – no wonder it is said that the road to hell is paved in good intentions. Sermon "Budrost", Isolationism and hostility, speculation on ethnocon confessional proximity is usually very expensive with peoples, about which quite recent events in the Balkan Peninsula testify very clearly.
Just in Montenegro, many people understood well, otherwise they would not have chosen such a president as Milo Jukanovich. And would not be banned to appear in their country to such a guardian "Orthodox Slavic Brotherhood", as a leader of the Serbian Radical Party and friend Zhirinovsky, Schell, who at one time called "scatter the eyes of a rusty spoon".
During the reasoning of the priest about "Unified Veslavyan Confederation" Standing next to me the young Chernogorets quietly, but said clearly: "I don’t want it, I want to go to Europe". I think belonging to Montenegro, and Serbia, and Russia to the community of democratic European states will not prevent the conservation of fraternal feelings between our peoples.
After all, in order to love someone, it is quite necessary to hate someone else.