How the icebreaker is arranged
For almost six decades, icebreakers have been mastering the expanses of high latitudes, withstanding the harsh struggle with polar ice. First atomic icebreaker «Lenin» was put into operation in 1959, and in 1977 his fellow «Arctic» The first to reach the extreme northern point of the planet. Today Russia has five in the ranks of atomic giants: «Sevmmmput», «Taimyr», «Vaigach», «Yamal», «50 years of victory».
What are they needed for
The tasks of the icebreaker include the provision of scientific research, as well as the wiring of ships on the closed ice sea routes and maintaining the livelihoods of polar stations. Sometimes even rescue operations happen. For example, not so long ago — In June 2013 — icebreaker «Yamal» participated in the evacuation of the drifting scientific station «North Pole — 40». Coming out of the port of Murmansk on June 1, after seven days the ship reached the station, and after four days successfully completed the loading of her staff and equipment.
Arctic giants can work not only in harsh conditions of the Polar region. Often icebreakers have to do and the path through the tropics, moving from the Arctic to the Antarctic and vice versa. At the same time, for the passage through warm latitudes, the vessel is given in a special mode of operation.
How they are arranged
Modern icebreaker — real city on water. His atomic heart consisting of two reactors allows for a long time to be in autonomous swimming, in full separation from civilization. Sometimes the expedition reaches a duration of several months. At the same time, the restrictions on the autonomous swimming are rather associated with the stocks of provisions, in the reserves of fuel, such a ship is capable of the sea without any support from the shore to several years!
Power, strength and mass cause fat Arctic ice to be closed under the severity of the icebreaker body, and the corridor of clean water remains behind the vessel body, which can already pass any impressive characteristics of the court. The power of the power plant is enormous. For example, on icebreaker «50 years of victory» It is 55 MW, which is equivalent to 75,000 l. with.! — it’s like 75 modern tanks or 430 ordinary cars. The thickness of the outer body of the icebreaker «Yamal» is 30 mm. And in the places of its contact with the Ice obstacle — 46 mm, only half a hundred-meter than the length of the matchbox. Often the vessel has a double case to ensure the strength, inside of which a water ballast is placed capable, moving, maintaining the stability of the vessel. The same housing is divided into compartments. For example, on «Yamal» Such eight.
Above black silhouette of the case rises bright add-in. In the White Mol, the polar latitudes it makes the ship noticeable. In the front of the superstructure there is a steering bridge — place where ship management. On the roof you can see a lot of antennas to provide satellite and radio communication, locator antenna and other complex instruments. Aft — Helicopter platform capable of carrying enough heavy transport helicopters, for example Mi-8 or Ka-32. Another important item for a modern vessel — Ecological compartment, employee for collecting all waste of the vessel.