How much weighs the cloud?
The question is complex, since there are no identical clouds. They differ from each other by form, dimensions, life time, height on which there are also extended, air temperature, speed of ascending movements inside the cloud.
The warmer cloud, the more usually its water content – the mass of liquid droplets and ice crystals (or the other) in 1 m³ of air. The greater the speed of ascending movements inside the cloud, the more moisture in it can be.
Let’s try to calculate how much about water is contained in one or another cloud.
Let’s start by S Thin layered clouds the lower tier, which is often tightened with the autumn and winter. In essence, these are real cloud fields up to 5-10 million km², which is approximately compared to the total area of Australia and Oceania and two to three times the territory of India. The thickness of such clouds is usually several hundred meters, water content – 0.2-0.3 g / m 3 . And contain such a giant in itself about 500-800 million tons of water.
Spindrift clouds inferior in size. Located at an altitude of about 7-10 km, they can close the area to 1-4 million km². For comparison: Egypt’s area is about 1 million km². The thickness of such clouds is about 1-2 km, water content (rather, ice, since they consist mostly from ice crystals) Low – about 0.01-0.03 g / m 3, due to which the filament clouds are much easier – about 30-50 million tons.
If you deposit the whole moisture from the cloud with a thickness of 1 km, a layer of water is formed only 0.3 mm
However, not all layered and pasty clouds reach as impressive sizes, and it is not always easy to understand, one is a cloud or several. From the Earth these borders are not visible at all, scientists determine them on satellite images.
WITH Head and cumulating clouds easier: their edges are visible to the naked eye. Such clouds have a small length, but they are pretty high.
In a warm sunny day we see lightweight cumulus clouds. They have a diameter of about 1-2 km and grow up about the same. Water range varies from 0.5 to 2.5 g / m 3 . Scientists have discovered a simple dependence: to determine the waterproof of a cumulus cloud, the thickness of which does not exceed 4 km, it is necessary to build a thickness into a square and divided into three.
For example, for a cloud of 2 km thick, the water purple is 1.2 kg / m 2, and for the cloud thickness and diameter 1 km – 0.3 kg / m 2 . By the way, 1 kg of water per 1 m 2 is the same millimeters in which precipitates measure. That is, if you deposit the whole moisture from the cloud with a thickness of 1 km, the water layer is formed with a thickness of only 0.3 mm.
To obtain the mass you need to multiply water from the area. For example, for a cloud with a diameter and a thickness of 2 km, the mass of the cloud will be about 4,000 tons. The cloud of diameter and thickness in 1 km weighs about 250 tons.
With powerful heap-rain clouds, the situation is more complicated, because the water content in them changes in height, although approximately varies from 1.5 to 4.5 g / m 3 . Such clouds can be extended to a height of 10 km (in the tropics and 20 km), reaching 10-30 km in diameter.
But again, scientists in due time led the pattern: if we divide the maximum water content in the vertical profile (in g / m 3) to four and multiplied to the thickness of the cloud layer (in km), you can get approximate estimates of waterpace (kg / m 2).
So, for a cloud thickness of 10 km and the maximum water capacity of 4.5 g / m 3, the waterpastes will be about 11 kg / m 2 (that is, if you deposit all the cloud, the water layer is formed just over 1 cm under it). The weight is also considered to multiply the water from the area. It turns out that a cumulus-rain cloud of such power and a diameter of 20 km will weigh about 3.5 million tons. True, modern satellite data show that these estimates are approximate.
Thus, cumulative clouds are usually much easier than cigarette and layered. There are other types of clouds, see some – Big luck. We wrote about them in the article "Top 10 rare atmospheric phenomena".