House Marco Polo
When this story just started, I did not think about Marco Polo. His name is expelled in my memory from school years along with the names of Afanasia Nikitina, Christopher Columbus and Magellan; Stuck the combination of words: Marco Polo, Venice, China. But as soon as I stepped on the board of a huge ferry-ship "Marco Polo" In the small Croatian town of Rovinj in the north of the country, not far from the legendary Venice, – the name Marco Polo sounded for me in a new way.
On board the ferry-shift, I got along with the our team of Yachtsmenovskijournalists, who took part in sailing races on the Croatian Television Cup. These races organized the tourist singer (Union) of Croatia on their own same type yachts. Representatives of 22 countries participated in them.
Race began in the town of Rovinj and had to end on the island of Korcula. Do not be these competitions, it would be pretty difficult to be on the island. Day after day flotilla yacht Ferrars in the azure Adriatic, and in the end we took at all a bad ninth place, having furnished savages from Ireland and Holland, who became an outsider. The Croatian Television Cup of Croatia brothers from Slovenia was convicted.
During yacht races accompanied the basic vessel "Marco Polo" With cabins for all participants in the contest. Everyone, of course, understood that in fact "World" Race – no more than a beautiful show whose goal is to show the attractiveness and safety of Croatia for foreign tourists. Flashing everywhere slogan "Little country for big holidays" It was not an advertisement, but the lifestyle of the small people on an unusually beautiful earth. Personally, all the journey seemed to me a kind of fascinating story about the marvelous paradise: I seek a page with clean townships, cozy bays, ancient history and without pretense with friendly people. And I understood with bitterness, why it seems to me unreal all that is happening: in Russia there will never be.
When the race approached the finish line, the history of the country was all stronger in our consciousness. Finally, we got up at the pier of the city of Korcula.
One of our "Hosts" – Natasha Marchel – our from Rijeki, where she moved from St. Petersburg, coming out married Croat, said:
– So he returned to his homeland, – She led her hand along the red roofs stretched on the hill with splashes of green bells,
– You mean our motor ship?
– Of course, Natasha replied and, noticeably worried, added: the route of our races was a kind of repetition of the path that Marco Polo walked to his phenomenon from non-existence and obscurity. Tomorrow Korcula will show Sea Guests "Bitcu" – battle. In 1298, after the real contamus, Marco Polo, from simple deniesy, will turn into a prisoner, writer, connoisseurs of the East. But on the grief, among the cypresses, there is an old cemetery. They say, there are graves of descendants Marco Polo.
Night Korcula met with highlighted houses and temples. In the air stood the smell of blooming magnolia and acacia. From this point on, my dive in history.
For some then, the question of the place of birth Marco Polo ceased to be rhetorical. A young country living mostly at the expense of tourism is trying to restore historical justice, refuting the usual thesis: Marco Polo – Venetian. Malkachka – the ancient Croatian name of Venice – also the leader is perceived in a new meaning of long history. In that Venice, which flourished in the time of Marco Polo, much turned out to be related to the history of Croatia. But before finding a country of independence, this is how few notice. Now, it seems, Marco Polo – a living legend of the wandering and opening peace – became part of the past Croatia. Yag ^.^ p:.^.R.: ^
The history of wanderings Marco Polo is known, and I want to stop at insignificant, it would seem details. In 1271, the 17-year-old Marko Polo leaves with his father Niccolo and Uncle Maffeo to China and there at the court of the great Mongolian Khan Khubilan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, and travels around the country to the death of this conqueror of China. Marco Polo’s homeland is returned by sea in the composition of the magnificent suite of the Chinese princess and the 41-year-old successful merchant appears in Venice. It was in 1295.
Here and start riddles. Why, for example, he did not immediately told about his adventures in the mysterious countries that visited? Moreover, he successfully performed there in the role of a certain adviser, nobody, it seems, not authorized on this role. Of course, merchant secrets were always protected, but the mission of polo is little similar to the merchant, and, according to the custom of all the wandering, he could well become the author of a peculiar report on his adventures. However, nothing happens, and the tour of the Polo remains as unclaimed by the Catholic Church, nor curious scientists.
Three years passed, and Marco Polo goes to the south to defend Dalmatia from the accomplice of the divided Genoesers who have conceived breaking the traditional marine power of Venice. What pulled him to the place of battle – it is also unclear. Most likely he was a captain of one of the ships of the Venetian fleet, and the version of the protection of Dalmatia as his homeland is the most believable. The course of further events confirms.
The island part of Dalmatia, belonging to Venice, ended the rather large island of Korcula, where they have long been engaged in shipbuilding. Nearby Eternally independent Dubrovnik was the rival of the city-island in shipbuilding. Until now, the Franciscan monastery has been preserved on the mainland shore, right in front of Korcula. From its windows in the era of Marco Polo "Scouts" Dubrovnik followed how much and which courts are built on the local shipyards and will it be affected by the safety of Dubrovnik.
The family of de Polo in Korcula was known for quite a long time. De polo means "from Paul", Rhodonarchistine Roda. Family Polo and Depoto (later the surname began to write like this) existed in parallel, and most likely no one attached the meanings to some difference in surnames. It is known that in Venice from the XIII century there was a diaspora of Croats. They settled in the areas of San Marco and Castello. The latter was famous for his arsenal and shipbuilding shipyards, where masters from Dalmatia were distinguished, from Korcula in particular. But on the Tamble cemetery there are no tombstones with polo names until the family of Korcula family appears. Venetian roots Marco Polo, thus disappear. So or roughly, the current history of the issue of the birthplace of Marco Polo is interpreted: somewhere in Dalmatia.
"Return" Marco Polo to the land of Croatia, or rather, one of the islands of this country – Korchula, – began with the decision of the city council on the establishment of the International Center Marco Polo. It was in November 1997. Head of the Center became. False descendant Marco Polo and the current district judge Korcula Vladimir Depoto – one of the authors of the collection dedicated to the Great Traveler. And the place for the future center is also chosen. This is a house where, according to legend, Marko’s parents lived – in the heart of the old part of the city, in the thick of medieval narrow streets.
In the morning, Natasha hurried to the top of the hill – to slim silhouettes of cypresses, these eternal satellites of Mediterranean polishes.
– Let’s do a surprise Vladimir Depoto and we will visit the graves of his ancestors before he himself tells about it. – So Natasha Marchel said, removing the digital camera on the light of God.
Natasha sincerely fascinated the history of the country’s new. But before climbing up, Natasha easily got through to the judge Vladimir Depoto and asked to take us for conversation.
– Come early, an hour before the marine tits, – replied the depoto.
The serpentine road running up, we preferred cozy and shorter, though cool, trails in the thick shadow of acacia, magnolia and chestnuts. In the end, we have reached the main thing: we saw old and completely new plates with the names of descendants Marco Polo. White gravestones of ancient burials alternated with rows of more modern in the style of monuments, however, few differed from old. On those and other memorial inscriptions began with a word "Abode". Better not tell for the last place of calm.
Now it remained to wait for the appointed meeting with Vladimir Depoto. It had a special meaning for me, since the current president of the International Center Marco Polo and his son participated in the stage "Battle Brodov" – Battle of ships – Back to 1298. It was meant to arrange a performance on water with the participation of a set "Story" Yachts and mowed under the Genoesers and Venetians of Sailors. The latter already crowded on the embankment, preparing for landing on "galleys". Those who played the role of future prisoners were rowed with shackles and chains on her arms, attracting photographers and videos.
This battle has become the main in the life of the 44-year-old Marco Polo. Nobody knew about his previous life, even admiral himself of the Venetian fleet Dandolo. What did he work to merchant secant? Admiral with ease entrusted to command a gallery to an experienced sailor, which was shown by Marco Polo. The grandiose battle with the eall commercial rival of Venice on the seas – Genoa. Admiral Dandolo fleet has 96 gallery and three large ship. The Genoese fleet under the team of Lamb Doria consisted of only 15 gallery and, it seemed, was doomed in advance. But the tactics of flanking coverages using reserves was Neviroma Venetians. On the raid of Korcula September 7, 1298, the Genoese defeated the Fleet of Venice. In just a few hours. 18 Galer was burned and drowning, 66 captured in captivity along with teams. Only a few galonese managed to slip away in the battle smoke and deliver sad news to Venice. 7000 killed and slightly more captives – this is the result of the unfortunate for the Venice of the battle. Only one person will be famous in this battle in the literal and figurative sense. Marco Polo sent his 120-rude gallery into the most thick traps, arranged by the Genoese, and fought until the last.
The wounded and beaten, marco polo, chained in the chain, threw the local antique tower into the dungeon. In nonsense, he told the wonderful stories about the unprecedented journey to China, who was surprised by his partner for imprisonment, some Rustichello, who turned out to be a writer from Pisa. Most likely, thanks to these stories in the local dungeon, Marco Polo seemed necessary to someone, and therefore the prisoners were delivered to Genoa, where Rustichello and wrote down the text of the future "Books Marco Polo". This book made a prisoner from Korcula almost the most famous traveler and the forerunner of the future great geographical discoveries. Needless to say, after writing the book, Marco Polo was released.
"Book Marco Polo" Subsequently, it became an object of attentive study for Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Magellan, who, with enviable stubbornness, sought to find sea routes where Marco Polo lived a long twenty years.
Vladimir Depoto met me and Natasha in the courthouse. The working day ran out, and the crowds discharged in the vintage costumes of people crowded on the marble stairs of the Palace of Justice, 51 years old, the half of the Polo looked much younger than his years. Of the courtesy, we began a conversation with impressions from Croatia, and Vladimir Depoto soon moved to the relations of Korcula with. Russia.
As a relic, who came from Russia, keeps Vladimir a book in our "365 days menu" and assures that sometimes uses these vintage recipes. For me, Revelation was published in Moscow in the publishing house "The science" (1976) Book of public and political strict Korcula Island in the XIII century. Talked about our visit to the cemetery, where the last grave from the village of Depoto turned out to be a recent burial of Spirome Depoto – relatives of Vladimir.
Finally, we went down to the embankment and met the detachment of warrigengenuses, in the ranks of which was also the son of Vladimir – Gymnasian Mikhovil – in a wagon costume Genoese galleys.
– Do not be surprised, – explained Vladimir, – the rules of the game obliges as a sign of reconciliation with distant past to change roles. We must live in peace with all the descendants of those who fought sometime. Look at the city. We destroyed the outer walls of the fortress and during these works laid a different kind of communication for the convenience of residents: many of these houses more than 800 years. Entrance to the old town – in the form of the arch cut in a fortress wall. Arch crowds tower with coat of arms of the city. On the coat of arms depicts a lion who put the paw on the revealed Khush.
Vladimir Depoto explained that this part of the coat of arms depicting Lion’s paws and books in the old days had to change. When Venice was in a state of war, the open book in the coat of arms of the city was replaced with closed (part of the coat of arms was removable, which is noticeable now). Symbols of enlightened people, otherwise you can not say: the book is closed – you have to endure difficulties and defend Fatherland, the book has opened – the time of calm, the heyday of culture.
Then we rose to the city center. There was the main Catholic Cathedral. With the square of the cathedral, a construction was visible, similar to a tiled tent over the courtyard as the third floor level. This was Marco Polo’s House. A narrow street leading to the house has already found the signators, and turning in the direction of the arrow, we ended up before hanging over the street with a balcony with a door leading to the second floor.
– Unfortunately, the exposition of the International Center Marco Polo is not yet ready and therefore the historical house is still closed. But I think it will not go and six months as we open the center. It will include several memorial objects and the main among them will be the museum in the house of Marco Polo. A new tourist tourists in the summer of 2000 will be called "Marco Polo from Korcula".