In order to see how our ancestors lived a hundred years ago, it’s enough to drive away from Moscow. The same, who lives in small villages or towns, do not even move away anywhere. Here and so nothing has changed. In South Korea, the situation is completely different. The Korean economic miracle is unrecognizable changed the appearance of the country. And if more than forty years ago, wood heating in Seoul was the most common, today today to present a real stove in the house of Korean is simply impossible. The same with ordinary houses. Find buildings older than 50s-60s. XX century very and very difficult. So that their ancestors lived before the centuries, the traditional buildings preserved after the civil war were collected in grains and reconstructed in special folklore villages.
The largest of these villages is located near Suwon, Thirty kilometers from Seoul. It was open on October 3, 1974. Now on weekends or holidays, whole families from the depths come here to show their numerous children as Korea looked before. Today it is difficult for them to imagine that there was a time when the houses were one-story, wooden walls, the roofs are straw, and the ride on the elevator was akin to the journey to Mars.
The choice of place for the city or village has always played a very important role in Korea. Geomantia experts had to give their positive conclusion. Otherwise, luck would never come to residents. Usually people settled near the rivers and mountains. For the East, however, not only for him is the usual thing. After all, the river gave water to cook and watering gardens, but the mountains have always been an ideal place for the construction of temples and solitude of hermites. Naturally, this model of the ancient Korean settlement did not exception. At a significant, compared to the whole village, the elevation is the charming Buddhist Monastery of Kumryans. All buildings are designed in traditional temple stylistics. So over the centuries, thousands of monasteries looked throughout Korea.
At the foot of the mountain, that is, at the crossroads between the world spiritual and world real, the residence of the province governor is located. This man was the governor of the king and possessed the full power of power. So it is not surprising that his residence should have to emphasize the significance of this figure and inspire with ordinary citizens respect or even fear. In many ways, the layout of this structure repeated the layout of royal palaces, but, naturally, in a somewhat simplified form: the main gate, the reception hall, the main office.
No less impressive, or maybe even more, looked at home rich people. After all, they possessed real, but not by budget money, and therefore, and this power. Although usually all this was combined. Rich and noble people most often occupied and high positions. Their homes were a kind of miniature model of society. The owner and the head of the family possessed the continued authority and absolute authority. In the walls of the house, everyone was obliged to obey him, and he in turn had to take care of them and protect against anyone.
Traditionally, such houses consisted of several separate buildings and had a clear division into sectors: House for the host house, men and its guests, servants, storage facilities, kitchen, bedrooms for women. Behind all buildings in the most secure place there is a family treasury. No treasure in our understanding there was not kept. It was the family altar where there were signs with the names of the ancestors. According to particularly solemn days, they brought victims as a sign of respect and reverence.
Several away from all other buildings is the Cottage of Elder Daughter. She, and rather her father, had to find the daughters of a good groom. By the way, the wedding ceremony in Korea, although, probably, as everywhere, was a very difficult and solemn event. It was accompanied by intricate ritual actions. For example, it was obligatory presence of rooster and chicken. They symbolized the bride and groom. Interestingly, a special place where marriage was issued in Korea. Officials were not engaged in such trifles. All the action took place in the house of the bride, so such attention and was paid to the housing of the eldest daughter. Hit in the dirt face before the guests would be a terrible shame. Moreover, before the wedding, representatives of the groom came to this place for negotiations.
Housing ordinary people were much easier. Although here traced a clear division of the house on the zones. Traditional materials for construction were tree and clay. At the same time, special wooden pins were used instead of nails. I must say that the traditional Korean buildings were very different depending on which part of the country they were located. In the south, where a warmer climate, houses were built without special heating systems with ordinary wooden floors. But in the north, where there are severe frosts, houses were equipped with a unique heating system – Ondol. Stone floor at the same time was and stove. The complex chimney system passed through all the floors of the house and maintained the desired temperature. Nowhere else in the world we will not meet this original solution to the problem.
For a long time, in the life of Koreans, all sorts of rites and holidays played a very big role. Colorful festivities on the most different occasions, lush spectacles and massive passions have always been present in the life of ordinary people. The most important thing was always considered the new year – the first day of the first month in the lunar calendar, or salt. Usually it falls at the end of January or the beginning of February. No less revered and some other holidays. For example, the birthday of Buddha, Tebamon – the first full moon in the new year – the day of the crop prayer, Tano – the fifth day of the fifth month on the lunar calendar. On this day, in the midst of harvest, the peasants stopped the work for one day and arranged a grand holiday. Chusok – Fifteenth Day of the Eighth Month, Harvest Holiday and Thanksgiving Day. There were many and other smaller holidays. The reason for the festivities could even become the arrival of an ordinary group of stray circus. Particularly spectacular in their performance looks on the podkin, occupation, must be said, very difficult and dangerous.
Over the centuries, Korean society was very closed and conservative. Therefore, the traditional lifestyle, how it represents the folklore village in Suvor, remained unchanged since the 50s. I century, ie the era of the three kingdoms – Shilla and Koguryo Pekche to the present day. However, under our days it is necessary to understand the beginning of XX century – the end of the Joseon Dynasty, when in 1910. Korea was annexed by Japan and is no longer on their own began to adopt many Japanese habits and lifestyle.