Flintstone junior: childhood in the Stone Age
Our ancestors are not only early to grow up, worked along with adults and held the bloody rites of initiation, but also looked like Romanian athlete Giuliano, who fell into the Guinness Book of Records as the strongest child of the planet.
|3.3 million – 500,000 years ago|
|Australopitek, man working, Heidelberg people, Neanderthal|
Australopithecov’s growing up much earlier than we have, and sneakers, as elk in the blueberries bushes, – unexpectedly. There was almost no teenage period: yesterday’s foolish cub suddenly became a serious adult. These scientists have determined not only on the found remains, but also as a result of observations of the cultivation of our closest relatives – chimpanzees, which can be compared with Australopithek. After the birth of the Australopitheka’s child grew rapidly and reached puberty, presumably, by 12-15 years.
However, the main chip of our species was a developing brain, which stretched to knowledge. The person is designed to learn – precisely thanks to natural curiosity we conquered space and invented the Internet. And you need to learn in childhood, so it was more and more stretched in time – our ancestors adults are all slower. Homo Ergaster (Homo Ergaster) who lived from 1.8 to 1.4 million years ago, the pace of adults were already among the mids and contemporaries.
Present "long and happy" childhood appeared only in Heidelberg’s man – about 500,000 years ago. Similar to our pace of adults were already among our "cousins" brothers – Neanderthals (although the growth rates of individual parts of the body could differ from ours – for example, their teeth were dispersed before).
It is not surprising that in a modern technocratic world, where so much you need to master, the adolescent age stretched for 12-14 years, and suggestions of scientists extend the age of TIN to 24 years.
|400 000 – 30,000 years ago.|
|Heidelberg people, Neanderthal, Sapirens|
Despite the fact that the biological maturity of Neanderthals, Heidelberg people and the first Homo Sapiens was similar to modern, their psychological childhood ended as quickly as the Australopitheeks – 10-12 years old. Children began to work on a par with adults: make stone tools, decorations, go hunting.
Analysis of the remains of two boys from the famous burial of Sungir (33,000 – 34,000 years ago) in the Vladimir region suggests that in his 12-14 years, these guys wear their bones to such an extent that the scrupulous anthropologists were able to determine the main genus of their classes. The first all my life was only done that she made samascious movements with hand (probably metal darts), and the second one was picking something (since thousands of beats from the bones of Mammoth were found in the burial, scientists suggest that he was engaged in their manufacture).
Research of the remains of the nine-year-old Neanderthal who lived in the cave of Okladnikov in Altai about 28,000 – 29,000 years ago, showed that his bones are comparable to the bones of our contemporary, which is more than 50 years
Even harder the childhood of Neanderthal. There are evidence that they are more faster than we (and because of those of the Neanderthal kids in the pace of development of individual parts of the body, despite the young age, were similar to their harsh adults: very large jaws, beveled chin, fat arch Skulls, powerful scribbling and hefty teeth). Research of the remains of the nine-year-old Neanderthal who lived in the cave of Okladnikov in Altai about 28,000 – 29,000 years ago, showed that his bones are comparable to the bones of our contemporary, which is more than 50 years. It speaks of great physiological stress. The child probably performed heavy physical work, and constantly.
So the muscular relief in the children of Paleolithic (both Neanderthal and Sapirens) was developed no worse than the Romanian Athlete Juliano, who fell into the Guinness Book of Records in his tender five years. It is not surprising that the life expectancy of the average Neanderthal has hardly reached up to 30 years.
|3.6 million – 14,000 years ago|
|Australopitseki, Heidelberg People, Sapirens|
Some kind of pleasantness were even in Australopita Devy. In the area called Laautol, located in Tanzania, found prints of the feet of Australopitets – a child and adult, which were held here 3.6 million years ago. The prints say that during the walk of mom held a baby by hand, and he grabbed it for her, I made small jumps (the same thing is like to do modern children). This is the evidence of the most ancient game of our ancestors.
Part of the guns are made of hand badly, part are of the average quality, and some are not inferior to the real "adults" Rubila. From this scientists conclude that some toys did adults to children, and some of them learned to cray
But the toys themselves appear much later. However, these are only those found scientists. After all, it is known that even chimpanzees play in the dolls (the boys do that), while using ordinary sticks. Tree, leather, wool or wax, of which modern aborigines make toys and which make up the main heritage of any ancient culture, are not saved, so you can assume that toys appeared very long ago.
The first testimony of stone toys belong to the time of Heidelberg people: 250,000 – 160,000 years ago. It is such toys – tiny stone chopped 4.4 cm long and weighing 17 g – found in the town of Queenteluych in Holland. Interestingly, part of the guns are made of hand badly, the part is of average quality, and part are not inferior to the real "adults" Rubila. From this scientists conclude that some toys did adults to children, and some of them learned to cray.
It was one of the "school" items that have replaced the ancient contemporary algebra or literature. But there were other "lessons": drawing and modeling of clay. It can be seen by rocky images and sculptures of those times that are similar to Dutch Rubylam: skillfully performed glove bison bison in the cave of Tyub-d’Ohube (France, 14,000 years ago) adjacent to the core statuette, made clearly ineptly children’s hand.
Another ancient toy is the ball. In the French cave Fontana, traces of strikes of the clay ball, which threw two children almost 14,000 years ago.
About parental care
|427 000 – 29,000 years ago|
|Heidelberg people, Neanderthal, Protosapians, Sapirens|
Our ancestors had a pretty hungry childhood – before something to eat, it was necessary to get. And therefore the children were not as an example of more than the current Chad. Although parents took care of them, but hardly more than this is customary in modern tribes.
Ancient quite loved their offspring, even if they were not like that. Example of this – Skull of Heidelberg Child from the Spanish Cave of Sima de Los Wesos with dating 427,000 years ago. The unfortunate suffered too early inking the occipital seam, because of which his head acquired a non-standard form – with a very vertical forehead and weakly protruding back. Nevertheless, he still lived to a certain age, which means one thing: someone cared about him.
Another example refers to our even closer relatives – Homo Helmei (Protosapiosa) remains from Caves and a cafe in Israel. 100,000 years ago a child lived here, sick hydrocephalus. He was probably loved not only at life, but after death, because he was buried with some special honors: in his grave there was a liver ostrich egg, the pit herself was covered with a stone slab (the graves of ordinary children, as a rule, have Other Inventory: Stone tools, Ripping ocra, Bone beads).
However, parental feelings did not affect the need to pass the initiation rites, which appeared at least 30,000 years ago and were distributed almost everywhere. It is believed that one of the boys buried in the aforementioned burial of Sungir was also preparing for such a rite. In his bones, scientists discovered zinc deficiency, which indicates that the poor fellow ate very little meat, which in those days (34,000 years ago) was more than standard food. But the ban on the use of an ordinary menu in preparing for the initiation ritual is practiced by tribes today, so that nothing bothered to do this in those distant years. And the boyfriend could become an object of sacrifice – this may be evidenced by the hole from a spear on his pelvic bone.
The meaning of the initiation rites is rebirth, that is, a symbolic death, and she does not happen. It is not surprising that it hurts, yes as. In North Africa, a lot of skulls were found with knocked front teeth (such a ritual when dedicated to men is found in this area today). And all the inhabitants of the male floor over 16 years old, who lived in the Upper-Paleolithic parking lot in Dolny Westonice in the Czech Republic 32,000 – 29,000 years ago, had a scar on his forehead (in women and children younger than this age was not), which also points to the initiation rite.
Materials and video tracks of the anthropologist Stanislav Drobyshevsky