Five stories of vessels stuck in ice
Go through the sea route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, called the North-Western Passion, many and – disappeared. They were looking for, but rarely found. In such a risky journey, a polar explorer went to Robert McK-Curl on the ship "Testor".
Coming out of London in 1850, the vessel passed through the Atlantic, proceeded along the entire Pacific coast of both Americas. Wintering the British near the island of Banx, making launches in different directions. So the North-West Passage was again detected again, but ice scored. At the foot of the cliff, which was once a finite paragraph of one of the expeditions, the Mac-Curl left a note indicating the place of wintering.
Advanced to the east further than all the predecessors, the "test" brain in the ice, the height of them reached 15 m. The supplies are exhausted, people weakened, the qing began. But thanks to the clutch left under the cliff in April 1853, salvation came. The team members of Edward Belcherche (the second expedition, who sent in the footsteps of John Franklin) went on dog sledging "at the specified address".
Here, as I described this meeting, McK-Curl: "We saw that some kind of human figure quickly approaching ice. When we saw that her face is black, like a resin, then we were involuntarily born a question, whether we deal with the inhabitant of the Earth or the alien from the world. If the heavenly arch had collapsed, then it seems we would be amazed less than the words that heard: "I pima lieutenant. from the ship "Resolve" . »Healthy and sick poured on the deck, not believing the ears and their eyes. Despair gave way to the hottest joy. ". The blackstone of the rescuer face, hitting the Mac-Current, is simply explained: according to the approval of the ship’s doctor, soot protected from hard sunlight.
Robert McClour became the first person who managed to go around both Americas. True, in England he was first devoted to the court for having left the ship, but after justified, glorified and dedicated to the knights.
"Endyrans" was one of the two ships – participants of the imperial transntarctic expedition that went into swim in August 1914. The task headed by the campaign of Ernest Shekletton put ambitious – cross the entire Antarctic mainland.
Later he admitted that he was ready for heavy ice conditions, but such powerful Pak fields did not expect (Pak – sea ice a thickness of at least 3 m, age for more than 2 years).
In January, the crew saw 30 meter ice walls, framed by the shore of the Earth Kots. At the end of February 1915, the commander announced the wintering: residential premises on the ship began to warm, dogs were launched on ice and placed in Konure. In April, ice moves began and there was a fear that "endurance" can be crushed. But it happened only in October – a breakdown was formed aboard. Three days crew pumped out water from the trim. Finally the commander ordered to start evacuation. The polar explosions were observed as their ship clapped with ice, turns into a debris and sinking.
Now the goal has changed to more prose – survive. Camp was founded on drifting ice. In April, she split off in two (and the tents and reserves were on the separated part), I had to urgently boot into the boat. Five-day swimming led them to the uninhabited island of Elephant, located away from shipping trails. Survive on the island was possible: fresh water, seals, penguins. But the team passed – and physically, and moral.
Shekleton with five people went on one of the boats for help – on the whaling base on the island of South George. With a favorable scenario, the journey had to take about a month. On April 29, the weather has deteriorated sharply, the temperature fell, the waves overlap the boat. Landing on Annenkov Island was extremely dangerous, but people weakened in their eyes and the commander decided. (Later he confessed that this swimming was one of the most terrible tests in his life).
280 km left the whaling base, but the boat would not stand the way. Two of the team were quite bad, and Shekletton with the rest (Wastley and Krin) went for salvation through the mountains – to the whaling base Stromnes. They walked 36 hours – without sleep, without cards, through glaciers, bypassing mountain cliffs – and finally reached the goal. On the same day, May 19, Norwegian kitobi sent a motor boat to evacuate the rest. Elephant rescued on the island managed not from the first attempt: Only on August 30, all the participants in the wintering switched to the side of the steam tug broken.
"Chelyuskin", 1933 year
For a steamer "Chelyuskin" and his crew, the Soviet government was entrusted with an important mission: to prove that during the short summer navigation, the usual steamer can pass the "Northern Corridor" – the shortest seaway between the European part of Russia and the Far East. "Chelyuskin" and was such a conventional cargo-passenger ship, except for navigating ice.
The expedition, headed by the director of the Arctic Institute, researcher Otto Schmidt, went to the path late – July 12, 1933. The first meeting with ice occurred in the Kara Sea. The obstacle managed to overcome and go to the cassucin. November 4, thanks to a successful drift together with ice, the ship entered the Bering Strait. To clean water was hand to file. But the ship fascinated back, closed with ice floes and with them it began to carry back to the Chukotka Sea. On February 13, 1934, the "embraces" of ice intensified – the sheat was shuffled, water was poured inside. Urgently started evacuation on ice.
Two hours later, Chelyuskin sank, and 104 people were on ice. What was the telegram "Personally Comrade Stalin". Operation of salvation began. Nevertheless, the main part of the Chelyuskins spent about two months on the ice. Burned. Barack and bakery built from rescued materials. So that time does not disappear for nothing, Schmidt read the wintering lectures in philosophy.
Flights in the north – the case is not easy, especially on aircraft of that time not adapted to the conditions of thick fog and low temperatures. So, running forward, the pilots who participated in salvation, not in vain got their stars of heroes. The first of March 5 landed on the ice crew of Anatoly Lyapidevsky on the AnT-4 plane. For two weeks, pilots made 24 flights. After that, seven pilots were awarded the title of heroes of the Soviet Union. Polar explosives also became national heroes. In honor of "Otto Julievich Schmidt on the ice, they say, even children called – Ottohuminald (boy) and Ottohuminlude (girl).