Five extreme organisms capable of surviving on other planets
People cannot be in the harsh conditions of space without special protection, but right now there are creatures that are not afraid of the acid rains of Venus and the solar radiation of Mars. Zoologist and one of the authors of the popular channel "Animal Book" in Yandex.Zena "Katia Buranova told about amazing earthly organisms that mastered the extreme habitat.
Bacteria – Real Superheroes Nature. 3.8 billion years ago, the first living organisms had to face the lack of oxygen, high radiation and temperature rinks. They were able not only to survive, but also gave offspring, which gradually evolved until it turned into ancestors of people. Ancient microorganisms used sulfur, nitrogen, iron, manganese and hydrogen for breathing and energy. Some bacteria do so so far.
For example, the most common intestinal wand (Escherichia coli) refers to the so-called anaerobam. She feels great without oxygen – Moreover, his presence for her poisonous.
Bacteria live in the intestine of people and help to digest plant food, but could well survive on the planets, in the atmosphere of which there is no oxygen. (Before "my planet" told where bacteria live in man and why they need.)
In boiling water
For a multi-minded Pompeary Worm Life near hot hydrothermal sources – just a paradise pleasure.
The researchers could not understand for a long time, how he was not soaked alive there. When this organism was only discovered, Zoologists tried to raise it on the surface. But without the usual extreme, the worm died suddenly.
Having molecular genetic studies, scientists confused even more. An animal had not a single gene responsible for protecting from high temperatures. Yes, and external covers did not differ from the usual worm.
I had to look more closely. It turned out that symbiotic bacteria that protect the body not only from high temperatures, but also from hydrogen sulfide on the surface of the worm. Such a layer maintains the temperature inside the body in the area of +22 ° C. And the discharge of bacteria serve as Pompeysky worm of food. Another candidate for the potential colonization of other planets!
At the height of the cold
Antarctic lichen (Pleopsidium Chlorophanum) is able to dwell in the most non-sensuous places on Earth.
For example, in Antarctica at an altitude of up to 2000 m. It feels comfortable in the cold, dryness and conditions of high ultraviolet radiation. Perhaps someday this is whether the plant is, or the mushroom will help to settle Mars. (Read our story about Antarctic bloody waterfall.)
Once scholars put a bold experiment. They were modeled in the laboratory Martian conditions with radiation, high temperature and atmosphere composition. Antarctic lichen not just survived, but also photosynthesis, highlighting oxygen. True find for future colonizers of Mars. How do you like, Ilon Mask?
Praempids – a family of parasitic OS-rider, who put eggs into another living insect. As the larvae growled the flesh of the unfortunate victim.
Once the bragids inspired the creators of films about strangers, but these wasps are actually cosmic. For example, They are very resistant to radiation: if the maximum for cockroaches – 10,000 is happy, then the OSA will survive at the level of radiation to 180,000 glad. Man with his maximum of 500 is happy at all better without hats in space.
Not every fish is able to become a cosmonaut, but the Fundulyus ordinary it was possible. Ichtiologists learned about his extraordinary abilities when they found a fish in the polluted US reservoirs.
For 60 years, Fundulus could not leave toxic rivers – I had to adapt. Increased salinity, too, it is also nicking, although many animals have such water corrosive skin.
Besides, These amazing fish can endure sharp temperatures and low oxygen concentration. As part of the experiment, Fundulus went for two months on a trip to the Skylab-3 orbital station, becoming the first fish in space. When in the future, the inhabitants of Mars will decide to go fishing, perhaps it is Fundulus on the fishing rod.
We do not know whether a person will be able to master other planets. Before building colonies in the solar system, scientists still have to carefully examine persistent organisms that adopted to the most severe conditions on Earth. They can suggest possible directions for the development of human civilization and will be taught to appreciate the planet we are divided.
Other materials about surprisingly survivable creatures can be found on the "Animal Books" channel in Yandex.Zen ". Read, for example, about Yeti crab.