Most of the Islands of the Fiji Group have volcanic origin, at the base they lie ancient extinct volcanoes of the spreading zone (sealing of the seabed) and the transform shift of the earth’s crust. The major islands like the Viti-Lev or Vanua-Lev Goras, the entire central part of them occupy strongly crowded slopes of volcanic cones with an average height of about 700 m. The country’s highest point – Tomani Mountain or Mount Victoria (1324 m) on Viti Levu.
Smaller islands are formed from limestone and coral arrays. For the most part, they are ancient coral reefs, surrounded by young reef structures and having a central lagoon characteristic of the atolls of the Pacific region.
Fiji subsoran, unlike many neighboring island groups, rich in minerals. Fields of gold, silver, polymetals, iron, uranium, bauxite and even coal (rare phenomena for the Pacific region) on the Viti Levu and Vanua-Lev, phosphorites (on Vatoa, it, Onhea-Driki, Vanua-Watu, and Tuvuk), and in the coastal zone, the oil fields are explored.
Fiji Islands pretty vegetation for island groups of the whole region. With east, more wet, the sides stretch the sides of sandalwood, "Wari-Wari" and "Uki". Savanns extend on the dry and solar western side ("Graceland") and open forests, called "Talatiga". Many of them are pounded by fields surrounded by thickets of Pandanus and Kazuarian. Coconut groves usually stretch along the coastal plains, and mangrove trees form a narrow strip along the coastal lagoon. Forests are covered by almost 35% of the islands, about 11% of the country’s territory, and all the rest are lagoon, reefs and rocky volcanic cones with almost fruitless, strongly leached soils.
Unlike many other islands of the region, thousands of rivers and rivers are numbered on Fiji, and the largest river of the country – Reva (Viti-Lev island), is a shipping for 128 km of its own.
Of almost three thousand species of plants found on Fiji Islands, about a thousand endemic. Fijian bats – the only original local mammals, but Europeans and people from Industan delivered a mangust here (imported to reduce the number of rats of rats, randomly brought to sugar cane plantations), wild dogs, cats, pigs and goats. About 20 varieties of local reptiles include turtles and marine snakes, but where comes from Great Iguana, who lives in South America – is still a mystery. Three of the seven famous varieties of sea turtle (green, bissing and leathery) are laying off eggs on local beaches from November to February, at the time of the full moon and high tides.
Approximately 100 species of birds live on the islands, 23 of which are endemics. Marine life off the coast is abypical and diverse – here are up to 60 types of corals (including rare soft), up to 39 types of sponges, more than 240 types of reef fish, 3 types of skates, about 16 types of sharks, also here Dolphins and whales are also found here.