Fighters of the invisible front
Remembering the Great Patriotic War, we usually talk only about those who are directly related to military actions: fighters on the fields of battles, pilots, sailors, scouts, partisans. The same, who at this time was in the terrible stoken of the war, supported the fighters behind the advanced, remain in the shadows. But in war there is no second role, whether you are a simple turner or scientist. "My Planet" talks about those who contributed to the common victory outside the front.
Neither gram over the norm
Working bakery No. 61 named A.E. Badaeva Emilia Chibor stacked bread in boxes to send to the store in a blockade Leningrad
"Take a look at the picture. It’s him. Not from papier-mâché, not from plastic or concrete … This is for you, my dear, baked it in tight recipes of that time (cellulose, cotton cake, outtreasted from bags, corn and rye flour), baked in the only factory worked at that Winter furnace №6. And measured 125 g ", – writes in the sketch of" bread unified "publicist Yuri growth, which has survived the famous hunger in the city blockade.
"The dough was weak, bitter bread, but it was still bread, and he gave people life," recalled the Baker of the Blood Leningrad Anna Nikolaevna Gorokhov. In her at all, not female duties came to carry on iced stairs on the fourth floor of boiling water to 600-liter boilers, shipping bags with flour, stand on the clock at warehouses, harvest peat.
And to rose the dough, you need warm. Wore rags, boards, branches and burned fires right in the workshop. Removed the vocabulary with themselves and wrapped the dough
Packs of bakers were distinguished only by the fact that they are "the same as others, grams got warm". Another terrible memory – flour with blood. "I remember flour with blood, but it was hardly a dream, it was the blood of Ladoga chauffeurs," Anna said.
Anna Nikolaevna Gorokhova and Daniel Ivanovich Kyutinen – Bakers of the Blocade Leningrad
But to survive, this, of course, not enough. In the book of memory of the blockade Leningrad, an entry was preserved about another bake – Daniel Ivanovich Kyutinen. On February 3, 1942, he died right at work at the age of 59 years from exhaustion, without eating a gram more laid rack of bread.
Baker-technologist of the blockade Leningrad Anna Alekseevna Kapustina recalled: "The shifts lasted on 16, and 18 hours, in the workshop – frostously. And to rose the dough, you need warm. Wore rags, boards, branches and burned fires right in the workshop – traces of them are preserved for a long time. Removed the vocabulary with themselves and wrapped the dough … The furnaces had to work continuously. Firewood is not enough. It happened that only two of the six stoves were treated, and even one, but the factory was never stopped. ".
Boiling water, soap, kerosene
The total number of the army by the beginning of 1945 was 14 million people, and for each soldier, on average, it accounted for 3 kg of underwear per week, which it was necessary to disinfect, wash, whiten, dying and stroke. For this on the front answered bath laundry detachments. "Washing. Across the whole war with the trough. Manually washed. Tejogins, gymnasters. Lingerie will be brought, it is redeemed, assigned. Balances are white, well, these, disguise, they are in the blood, not white, and the red. Black from old blood. In the first water it is impossible to wash – it is red or black. Gymnaster without sleeves, and hole on all breasts, pants without a pant. Launder with tears and tear to. Mountains, Mountains of these gymnasters. Vatnikov. As I remember, hands and now hurt. In winter, the breasts are heavy, the blood is frozen. I often see them now in a dream. Lies Black Mount. "- recalled ordinary Maria kidko, fighter of a field bath laundry. Her words are forever recorded by Svetlana Aleksievich in the book "The war is not a female face".
For incomplete four months of the Winter War (Soviet-Finnish conflict of 1939-1940), almost 6.8 million kg of linen passed through the hands of the bath laundle of the North-Western Front, that is, an average of 57 tons per day! But ahead was still the Great Patriotic
Before washing the lingerie was soaked in kerosene to destroy parasite on clothes. After that, everything was boiled and fell in chlorine and click. Caustic composition literally corrosion female hands. "Girls are all my age, before this parents loved us, pumped. I was the only child in the family. And here weighing firewood, drown stoves. Then we take this ash in the boilers instead of soap, because soap will bring, and here – it ended. Lingerie dirty, sewn. In blood. Winter heavy blood. "Said Sergeant Svetlana Katihina, fighter of a field bath laundry.
Rafting laundry in the forest
For incomplete four months of the Winter War (Soviet-Finnish conflict of 1939-1940), almost 6.8 million kg of linen passed through the hands of the bath laundle of the North-Western Front, that is, an average of 57 tons per day! But ahead was still the Great Patriotic.
Students of the craft school for assembling mortar mines in a blockade Leningrad
Due to the lack of workforce at the factories, there were 14-16 adolescents with women and even younger: I was already taken to auxiliary work from 11 years. At the beginning of the war at the Perm Motor-Building Plant №19 them. Stalin, which was the only Soviet enterprise for a long time, where the motors for fighters were produced, about 8,000 adolescent worked. "In 1943, I was brought from the Vologda region to Perm, on the air facility. Worked Tokaram. Often, did not even leave home from the workshop – spent the night right at the factory: in starading, in the toilet on the boxes. I remember the boots I had a tarpaulin, on a wooden sole. For a good job I got a normal shoes and material on the dress. Here are joy. "- remembered Alexander Belyaeva, in peacetime became a deputy of the Perm City Council.
Collectively working adolescents of wartime became the so-called "Blocade Djokonda" – photo of Tokar Petrogradsky Farm Tikhova. In his 15 years, the girl performed one and a half adults and even became the turn of the 3rd category
According to the memories, another employees of the plant, Anna Titov, especially hard to work in winter: "We worked 12-16 hours a day. The shops were very cold, therefore went all the time in the tag. To support the fighting spirit of the guys, the head of the plant, General Anatoly Soldiers for the processing of the norm encouraged young front of gifts: a couple of boots and – this is a real value! – jar jam.
Tokar 3th category Fifteen-year-old Vera Tikhova (left) at the machine in a blockade Leningrad. Valya Volkova (right) on the assembly of PDA machines at the factory named.NS. Veskov in Blocade Leningrad
After awarding young tokarims, electricians, locksmiths and controllers beloved lunch: soup, porridge, tea instead of ordinary balancing. Today, a collective way of working adolescents of military time has become the so-called "Blocade Dzokonda" – photography of Tokar Petrogradsky Faith Tikhova. In his 15 years, the girl performed one and a half adults and even became the turn of the 3rd category.
Maria Yakovlev. Gas-aa car ("half a gun") she drove
"The front door song" became a hymn of those who during the war did not part with the "Barank". In the main champions during the war were women. "In the 5th spare shelf, under the 3rd Guards Army, we fell into a group of 200 girls who studied at drivers’ courses. Were in the front-line strip. There is an offensive – and we are near. Retreat – and we taarahtim bowls. During the day there were classes, in the evening until 11 o’clock – construction preparation, "recalled the front driver Ekaterina Vasilchenko.
Another participant in the war, Maria Yakovleva, remembers that he broke out on the front literally with the battle – the girl of incomplete 17 years did not want to take, until she showed a fresh driver’s license – "Drivers we need!". "I have no bloody corn with my right hand. In the cold for a very long time to twist the handle to start the motor. In the summer he started faster, so the corn with his hands disappeared. Cold Donimal. We did not have semisms. Outfitting – fucked, cotton pants, kizzy boots, hat-ush. But for machines, so that they are always in combat readiness, in a special barrel constantly raged water and machine oil. Two people there always duty, the firewood in the stove was lined up. Hunger also Donimal – fed badly. When they switched the border, it became better with food. ". Victory Maria Vasilyeva met under Königsberg. In peaceful life, however, did not. The profession in peaceful life also chose the most peaceful – teacher.
Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh at a press conference in the Moscow House of Scientists
"One of the many misconceptions failed the fascist campaign to the Soviet Union was the underestimation of Soviet science," the physicist and academician Sergei Vavilov considered the President of the Soviet Academy of Science in 1945.
Finds and solutions of our researchers immediately introduced into production. So, in the mid-30s, the leading constructors of the whole world beat the problem of flutter – increasing shaking, due to which, when switching to high speeds, airplanes were literally collapsed. The problem solved the famous scientist Mstislav Keldysh, one of the fathers of the Soviet Space Program, with the staff of the TsAGI. After conducting a number of mathematical calculations, Keldysh formulated the reasons for the flutter, developed a method for calculating critical speed and available practical techniques for quenching the vibration arising from this. And after a few years later, he also managed to overcome the effect of Shimmi – strong self-excited oscillations of the aircraft chassis, leading to breakage during take-off and landing. Mathematics around the world still call this work "beautiful" and the most important for the development of Soviet aviation. Result – Two Stalinist Prizes and Order of the Red Banner.
Dmitry Dmitrievich Maksutov – Soviet scientist, optical, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The inventor of the meniscus optical system, which bears his name, which is currently widely used in the telescope. Laureate of two Stalinist premiums
During the war, astronomers, the studies of which had the defense importance were not interrupted their work. Employees of the State Astronomical Institute of Moscow State University amounted to Special Sports Tables and Sunset and Moon for the Navigator Service of Bombarding Aviation. In addition, in wartime, a meniscovaya system of telescopes was invented, which played a huge role in optical instrument making. Dmitry Maksutov, the author of the invention, recalled that this idea came to his head on the road, during evacuation, when the state optical institution was evacuated from Leningrad to Yoshkar-Ollow.
Ivan Nikolaevich Nazarov – Soviet chemist. Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Laureate of two Stalinist premiums
Replace broken gas tanks, battery case, drills, cylinders on tanks and machines on the front helped the new invention of the Soviet chemist Ivan Nazarova – carbile glue. For the development of a miracle glue in 1942, Nazarov received a state award. Glue and after the war were widely used in optics, in different branches of technology, even to glue marble in the subway.
Boris Yakovlevich Elbert (left) – Soviet scientist in the field of microbiology. Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor. Honored Worker of Sciences Kyrgyz SSR. Nikolay Akimovich Gayi (right) – microbiologist, doctor of medical sciences, professor of igmi, creator of tularemia vaccine, winner of the Stalinist Prize
Doctors. During the war, doctors, chemists and biologists have created vaccines from Tularemia and tuberculosis, new drugs and ointments (including Vishnevsky ointment). For the outstanding achievement of the Soviet microbiology and immunology, the Gay and Elbert in 1946 were laureates of the USSR State Prize.