Turkey City: Cayseri
Green fields, wooded hills and snow vertices of the ancient volcanoes Kuzuyatagy (3940 m), Lafos (2503 m) and Yilalydag (1639 m) surround the ancient city Cayseri (Kayseri) in Eastern Cappadocia.
People began to settle in these places at the dawn of civilization – right at the eastern outskirts of the city lies the fortune Cultepe, dated iv millennium BC. NS. During the initiation of the Hett state, there were already two settlements – Kanesh, the capital of the Kingdom of the same name (according to scientists – the most powerful in Anatolia), and Karum, which was founded by Assyrian merchants as a bazaar, one of the oldest in the world. And on the site of the modern Kayseri originally located the settlement of the Mazak, which reached the heyday during Frigians. Romans called him Caesarey in honor of the emperor Tiberius, and with them the city became the capital of the Roman region of Cappadocia. Captured by the Persians after the battle at Edress (Urf), the city was almost completely destroyed, but quickly restored by the Romans, though she moved to 2 km north of the ancient Acropolis (presumably, the city center was the church and a monastery, founded by Holy Vasily – one of the three Cappadocian "Fathers of church" and Bishop Caesarey). Thanks to the advantageous strategic location, the city quickly turned into a leading cultural and shopping center Cappadocia. In 1067, the city was captured by Selzhuki Arslan II and became the capital of the powerful Emirate of Danishmand, who included Cappadocia, Sivas and Amassia (that is, almost half of modern Turkey). Then the city has repeatedly passed from hand to hand and only in 1515 he is part of the Ottoman Empire.
So long and stormy story could not not affect the look of Cayseri. Old Town, built of black volcanic stone, as well as numerous ancient ruins around brightly contrast with a thriving business center, and nearby reserves Sultanasalyg and Erdjijah only add attractiveness to him.
High gear walls Citadel, Built from the black volcanic rock in the VI-XIII centuries, are the best place to start meeting the city. Near the citadel towers Hünat Hatunyuliy – The first mosque built by Seljuki in Anatolia (construction began in 1239 g.). And the adjacent mosque Madrasa is considered one of the most beautiful samples of the Senjuk architecture in Turkey.
The main attraction of Kayseri is its old quarters, the beautiful buildings of which still play an important role in the daily life of the city. Interestingly, the strict Islamic norms characteristic of this region contributed to the fact that wealthy citizens inned money not in mansions and palaces, but in various public buildings, so the entire historical center looks quite uniformly.
- Historical Center
- Night city
- City tram
- Ulu-Kamya and Market
Public life centers are three markets – Baby (1497 G., Originally used as a fabric market, and now is one of the largest carpet centers of the region), Vesir Khana (1727 g.) and the recently restored indoor bazaar (1859 g., more than five hundred shops and shops). Interestingly, unlike other shopping zones of Turkey, in the Kaistery bazaars, it is practically not accepted to bargain – local businessmen have a reputation as the most intractable sellers in the country. Near the market area is located Ulu-Kamya, or a big mosque built in the first half of the XIII century and still being in a wonderful state. Its roof is maintained by four row of stone pillars with marble capitals, and carved wooden mimber has been preserved almost in untouched state, although the central dome has erected today.
Kayseri was described in the chronicles as the city of Mausoleums, and so far here you can find a lot of these squat and beautifully designed structures ("Kumbet") dated XII-XIV centuries. Moreover, it can be found sometimes in the most unexpected places – several graves are even on the islands of the security of the main highway, leaving south. The most famous memorial is Doner-kumbet (1275 g., Built for Shaha Jacian Hatun), decorated with Arabesque, traditional image of a stylized tree of life, double-headed eagles and lions. It is believed that local mausoleums in their architecture most fully copy the ancient tradition of Turkic peoples to bury their dead in yurts – in their appearance they really resemble these traditional dwellings steppes.
Good urban Museum of ethnography Located in a beautiful half-century mansion XV century Gurguipoglu-Konagy (Open daily from 8.30 to 12.00 and from 13.30 to 17.30, input – 2 try). Museum of Cayseri (open from Thursday to Sunday from 8.30 to 17.30, the entrance – 2 TRY) contains interesting findings from Kuultpe’s settlement in its collection, as well as the Artifacts of Greek, Roman and Seljuksky periods. And that is important – the museum is equipped with a good reference material in English, which is rare for most Turkish collections.
Also be sure to visit the big Armenian church Surp-Crit-Luszorich (6 km south of the city) – the last architectural reminder of the importance of the city in the Byzantine era. Dated approximately 700 a year of our era, it is considered the biggest Christian Church of Turkey. It is almost all the time closed, but the caretaker of the temple, a friendly Armenian family from Istanbul, gladly show her tourists.
Dormant volcano Kuzyatagy, or Erdjijas-Dag (3940 m) dominating the city in the southwest, is one of the most popular places of active recreation in the region. There is a small ski station, an expensive hotel with its own ski school and swimming pool (right on the mountain!), 5 lifts and approximately 12 km of tracks. Ski season lasts here from December to May, and snow falls enough for skiing. There are two mountaineering and trekking routes, but it is not recommended to climb the mountain at the beginning of August – during this period on the Alpine meadows, Tekir-Yaylas is usually a collection of supporters of an ultranationalist party Milli Hareket Partisi.
South volcano lie saline and tiny lakes Oasis Sultanasalyg, having bird nature reserve. Interestingly, the lakes are salty here, while the swamp is freshwater, and this particular combination of lakes, swamps, salt marshes and steppes causes a huge variety of ecosystems. About 250 types of feathers were registered here, 69 of which constantly live in these parts, and the rest fly to wintering during the migration period, and even flamingos, pelicans, storks, steppe eagles and herons live on a lake. In the village of Ovachift (Ovaciftlik) there is an observation tower and a small local lore museum.
22 km north-east of the center of Cayseri lies an important archaeological site Cultepe (Kultepe, open from Thursday to Sunday with 8.30 to 17.30, entrance – 2 TRY), which is both the largest artificial mound in Turkey, and one of the most ancient human settlements in the region. Here were found the earliest samples of writing in Anatolia (approximately 15 thousand clay plates), a well-preserved kit of home utensils, weapons and animal figurines dating from the IV-II millennia BC. NS. The best finds are stored now in the museums of Ankara and Kayseri, but the excavations themselves are an impressive spectacle. The so-called big palace (II millennium to N dominant over the upper section is especially interesting. NS.) with an area of 3000 square meters and the Palace of Warsana (Ruler Kanesh), isolated from global bricks, the ruins of once two-storey shops, shops, archives and storage facilities, numerous graves, which were arranged here right under the housing of residential buildings, and numerous furnaces that served for firing famous clay chambers Cultepe. In one of the numerous archives of the city, an already 1500 of these clinical plates, telling about the extensive trade relations of the city. The plot itself is quite carefully excavated and gives good ideas about the town-planning art of antiquity, and the construction methods found here are still common throughout Anatolia.
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