Turkey City: Ankara
The capital and the second largest city of the country, Ankara is located at an altitude of 850 meters above sea level, on the edge of Anatolian Plateau, at the confluence of Ankara and Chubuk. This is one of the oldest cities of Malaya Asia, the Fortress Ankuvash served as a shelter for the surrounding residents in the time of Hittites (1200 g. to N. NS.). Frigians, Persians, Lydians and Celts (Galati) alternately occupied Ankara, who received the name of Angora by that time, and during the Roman Empire, the city was the capital of Galatia province and was called Sebastus, or Augustius. In the Middle Ages, he repeatedly passed under the power of the Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Mongols, and, finally, in 1071 he was engaged in Seljuk, finally turning under the power of Osmans only in the XV century.
Ankara remained a small provincial city for a long time, until the Anatolian Railway, leading to Istanbul, was built in 1893. When, on October 13, 1923, Ataturk proclaimed Ankara the capital of the Turkish Republic, the city consisted of only about 25 thousand inhabitants, and the water supply and electricity were unheard of luxury. As a result, the capital is now as if two cities, noticeably different from each other. The old Ankara focused around the citadel preserved its medieval charm "Capital wool" (term "Angora wool" stems from the ancient name of the city, famous for its weaver). The new city of the ring surrounds the old quarters and is vividly allocated by monumental government buildings, symbolizing the ambitions and the power of the new state, as well as sufficiently faceless buildings of the mass building. Interestingly, government quarters, built in the main German, Austrian and Italian architects, very remind "Stalinsky quarters" Our cities, and the complex of the Great National Assembly of Ankara (1938-1960.) Few differences from pompous buildings of socialist architecture. Now it is the city of ministries and embassies, universities and medical centers, as well as the center of winemaking and a large transport node of the country, considered one of "The most Europeanized" Cities of Asia.
The historic center of the city is considered a citadel Hisar, Announced by a double wall, on which you can trace the stormy history of Ankara – each conqueror updated the walls of this citadel using the remains of destroyed buildings for this. The inner walls belong to the VI century (although some researchers believe that they were still hittles), and the modern view of the fortress found in the 9th century under the Byzantine Emperor Mikhail III, when the external perimeter of the walls was erected, between which the Inona Park. With the balls of Ak-Kale (White Fortress) and the dilapidated Shark-Kules, the beautiful panorama of the city opens, and the southern gates of Gune-Kapov, framed by two towers, which used fragments of Roman buildings were used, bring to a simple Alaceddin Kamya Mosque (XII in.) whose painstakingly carved mimbar (similar to the throne of the department intended for reading the Quran or sermons) refers to the early Seljuk period.
Bully below lies the chaos of old quarters, powered by a cobblestone and wreckage of earlier structures that are outlined to excellent Museum of Anatolian civilizations (Hittite Museum, open daily from 8.30 to 17.15; Login – 10 TRY). This is the best museum of the city, which occupies the set of an old indoor bazaar (XV in.) and possessing the richest meeting of archaeological finds, the objects of the history and culture of the mysterious Hittal people, during the period of the XVII-XII centuries. to N. NS. thorough horror on all Asia with their chariots. The central hall of the museum presents statues and reliefs from the rivory, Malatya, Karateta, Kargamysh, Arsland and Aladja-Khuyuk. In an extension of a slope of the hall – the objects of stone (from Calta-Hyuk) and Bronze (from Aladja-Khayuk) centuries, sunny discs, stone bas-reliefs, homemade utensils and weapons, kneading samples, images of deer and bulls. The following are exhibits from Alishar and Cultepe, relating to the periods of the Hittte and Frigian kingdoms, the Empire of Urart and Roman domination.
- Citadel Hisar, Ankara
- Ankara Ethnographic Museum
- Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara
And just a few blocks to the southeast rises Aslanhan Kamya – The oldest and most impressive Ankara Mosque, sometimes called "Forest mosque" Because of 24 wooden columns that support the fancy carved wooden ceiling. Surprisingly detailed mambar of walnut wood (1209 g.) It is considered one of the last examples of Suljukskaya decorative thread. Opposite the mosque is the octagonal mausoleum of its builder Ahi Zeraphathtina.
A little southwest can be found another beautiful mosque – Ahi-Elvan Kamya (XIII B.), but this is a typical example of Ottoman style.
Between these two mosques, below the walls of the Citadel, is a caravanseray Pirinch Han (XVIII B.), which after the restoration was turned into a large shopping center, the forty stores of which offer a wide range of carpets, embroidery, paintings, antiques, glass, copper and silver products.
Another symbol of the city – Mosque Haji Bayram (XV B.), built next to the ruins of the famous Temple Augustine and Roma (25-20 GG. to N. NS.), on the walls of which essays from Roman history and Res Gestae divi Augusti – a list of Acts of August, a kind of political will of the emperor, which was carved at each temple of the Roman world after his death (I wonder what only in Ankara, this amazing monument of history was preserved in full form). In the V century. NS. The ruins of the temple were rebuilt into the Christian church, and in the XV century – in the Madrasa Haji Bayram. Here, right in front of the mosque, there is also the mausoleum of this holy patron Ankara, glorifying as the founder of the famous Order of the Dervish Bayra.
A few hundred meters southwest on Hukumet Meydanii street can be seen unusual "striot" Column Juliana (Julyanus Sutunu), erected to commemorate visiting Ankara Byzantine Emperor Julian Apostode.
Another monument to the Roman era – Roma Hamamlary, or Roman terms (II-III centuries. N. NS.), lie approximately eight hundred meters to the north (open daily from 8.30 to 12.30 and from 13.30 to 17.thirty; Login – 2 TRY). Here, besides the baths themselves, a large palist (private gymnastic school) has been preserved with fragments of colonnade and buildings.
- Mausoleum Ataturk
- Ataturk House in Ankara
- New district Ankara
Present place of pilgrimage of local residents – Majestic Construction Mausoleum Ataturk (Anyt-Kabir, 1953., Open on Mondays from 13.30 to 17.00, from Thursday to Sunday – with 9.00 to 17.00, winter closes in 16.00; Login free) in a block of Maltepe. Here the sarcophag of the founder of the Turkish Republic of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is kept here – the first ruler of the country, who attached to her a civilized appearance and, in fact, committed revolutionary transformations in all spheres of public life of Turkey. Every hour at the walls of the mausoleum passes a solemn shift of Karaul.
In the north end of the Ataturk Boulevard is the main square of the city – Ulus Maidana, Usually known just as a ulus ("National") with a huge equestrian statue of Ataturk. It is here, in the building of the old school, on October 29, 1923, it was announced the creation of an independent Turkish Republic, then it served as a residence of parliament (until 1925.), and today is located here War Museum for Independence (Kurtulus Savas Muzesi, open from Thursday to Sunday from 9.00 to 12.00 and from 13.00 to 17.00; Login – 2 TRY). An extensive collection of photographs and documents covers each stage of numerous military campaigns of that period, and although all explanations are made in Turkish, most of the material speaks for itself. Visitors can also inspect the Chamber, where the delegates of the First Parliament were sitting behind the usual school parties illuminated by the candle. And opposite the museum is the first hotel Ankara – Ankara Palas, Once served as a guesthouse for government dignitaries. Nearby is I Museum of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Muzesi) currently closed for reconstruction.
South can be visited good Youth Park (Genjalk) with a small moon park, Devlet-Opera (Opera House) and Grand White Paper Complex Ethnographic museum (open from Thursday to Sunday with 9.00 to 12.00 and from 13.00 to 17.00, input – 2 TRY). And behind them new quarters of the capital.
- Youth Park (Genjlik)
- Square Ulus Meidan
- Roman terms, Ankara
Forever burrowing "New Ankara" With her chaos of road junctions and unassuming quarters, new buildings are usually a little interesting to the tourist. And nevertheless, here too, there is something to see – Hatti-Anyut (Hittte monument, modern imitation of ancient bronze statues of Anatoly), massive mosque Kodjatepe-Kamya (1967-1987. – the largest in the city and one of the largest on the planet), modern Turkey Parliament Building and Presidential palace (Opened only on Sundays and national holidays, from 13.30 to 17.00, the entrance is free, but due to the huge number of people who want to get here, it is recommended to book a visit to the local tourist office for a day or two), the Alley and Tower Atakyl (125 meters high, climb the sighting site can be every day, from 10.00 to 22.00, the ride on the elevator will cost 2 try), the State Orkestra Complex (Devlet Orkestrasi) south of the House of Opera and Park Genjlik, a rich foresight of Cavaclayer with its numerous clubs and discos, and of course – dozens and hundreds of shopping centers, shops, markets , bazaars and other attributes of a typical Eastern city.
Ankara has two tourist offices: at Esenboga airport (open daily from 9.30 to 18.00, sometimes longer, depending on the arrival time of flights; Telephone: (0312) 398-03-48) and in the Maltepe quarter, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Bul 121 (in the summer is open from Monday to Friday – from 9.00 to 18.30, on Saturdays and Sundays – from 10.00 to 17.00; In winter – from Monday to Friday – with 9.00 to 17.00, on Saturdays – from 10.00 to 17.00; Telephone: (0312) 231-55-72). The latter is more informative, and it is easily accessible from the station through the underground tunnel or from Maltepe Ankaray Station (LRT).