Czech Cities: Olomouc
Picturesque Olomouc (Olomouc, Czechs pronounce his name with a light proncess as "Olla Mowz") Lies 220 km east of Prague and 70 km northeastern Brno.
In this place, Morava picks up dozens of rivers running into the valley with the surrounding mountains and hills, so the Romans estimated a favorable strategic position in the first century. NS. Built here the northernmost military camp in Central Europe. For a long time, this place was only an intersection of trade routes leading on the Valley of Moravia to the north, to modern Krakow. But in the IX-X centuries, the settlement with a powerful one for those times the fortress was the center of the Olomouc specific princess and the actual capital of Moravia (from 1187 to 1641). After the fall of the Great Moravia, it becomes the center of the imperial marking of Moravia and the eponymous of the diocese, and in 1253 he receives the status of the city.
After the thirty-year war (XVII in.) Olomouc was practically lying in the ruins, and the metropolitan authority gradually switched to Brno, but in 1848 the imperial courtyard was temporarily moved here, the city is actively populated by the Germans and receives a Germany Olm&# 252; TZ), here the Ferdinand I Habsburg (kind) is coroned. In those days, almost all of Olomouc lay within the ring of defensive structures of the XVI-XVIII centuries and only after their demolition in 1888 began the rapid growth of the settlement. Now he is considered one of the most beautiful cities in the Czech Republic with the second in the size of a protected historical center (after Prague) and the richest cultural life, one of the most important educational centers of the country (more than 10% of its population are students of the University of Palatsky), although it is still small – a little more 100 thousand inhabitants.
Sights of Olomouc
The historic core of Olomouts spread around three large areas, the most famous of which is the top (Horni Nam&# 283; STI) – decorates a huge Column of Holy Trinity (1716-1754.) entered into UNESCO World Heritage List. This is the largest building of this kind in Central Europe – the height of 35 meters, the base diameter is about 20 meters (a small chapel is even fits inside). Near the building towers Town Hall (XV B.) With a 75-meter hour tower, astronomical churants and the Gothic chapel of St. Jerome in the southern part, as well as Moravian Theater (Moravske Divadlo, XVI-XVIII in.) in neoclassical style.
Truly the cult center of the city is Cathedral of St. Vaclav (SV Vaclav, or Do’m), which was laid in the XII century as a lock basil in the Romanesque style, but subsequently repeatedly rebuilt. Most of his today’s elements are the result of the reconstruction of the late XIX century, however, part (main nave, romance crypt, gothic arcade and baroque chapel) reached us in primevarial form. The result of the last alteration is the oriental spire of 100 meters high, complementing the main (southern) bell tower (100.6 meters – the second in the height of the church tower in the country). Part of the cathedral is given to the meeting Muzeum Umeni (www.Olmuart.CZ) with permanent exhibitions of contemporary art. From here you can also climb the gallery of the watchtower (Vyhlidkova vez), from where the beautiful panorama of the old part of Olomouc opens.
Nearby from the Cathedral are located Palace Prezhysovitis And the rich Archbishop Museum (Arcidiecezni Muzeum, entrance – 50 CZK), which occupies the building of the Episcopal Palace. Nowadays, there is a stunning collection of gothic paintings and sculptures, under which beautiful Romanesque chairs and the first floor corridors, preserved from the original building of the XII century. Visitors can also explore a secluded Garden of the Paradise Court (Rajski Dvur) and descend to carefully restored Chapel of St. John the Baptist (SV Jan Krtitel), in which excellent samples of sculptures and fragments of the original palace finish are exhibited.
Also to famous historical monuments of the city include rather strange architecture Church of St. Mauritius (SV Moric, XV in.) With the fortress-like walls, the gothic interior and the largest body in the Czech Republic (the Festival of Organ Music is held every year here in early September), unfamiliar Chapel of St. Yana Sarkander (Sarkandrova Kaple) on the site of a former city prison (it was here in 1620 this Catholic priest was tortured, canonized by John Paul II in 1995.) adjacent to her source name of the same saint (it is interesting that water is served here from Lake to the dungeon, where he was kept Sarcander), Monasteries of Dominican sisters and Gradishko (HRADISKO) Orthodox Church of St. Horad, baroque Temple of Visit Virgin Mary (1669-1679.) on Holy Trigger (Svat&# 253; Kope&# 269; EK) – a small hill north of Olomouts, as well as 6 baroque fountains scattered throughout the historical center.
At the end of April, August and October, the city opens the huge exhibition platforms of the flower festival Flora Olomouc (www.Flora-OL.CZ) – one of the most popular in the country. Every year thousands of guests come here, so hotels for this period should be booked in advance.
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